UAV for agriculture.
UAV for agriculture are designed to address a wide range of tasks, ranging from condition monitoring of agricultural crops, and ending with the conduct of agricultural operations (fertilization, protection of plants from pests and diseases, etc.).
Modern effective agriculture is not possible without information technology, without knowledge of the exact contours and the area of fields, the actual data on the status of plants and soils. Therefore, aerial photography from air is the most simple and effective method of obtaining such information, and the use of UAVs for agriculture is becoming increasingly important. In addition to retrieve the actual data of the UAV can be used for agricultural operations (fertilizer application, means of combating pests and diseases, etc.).
Unmanned aerial vehicles in agriculture to solve the following tasks:
– creation of electronic maps of fields (construction of a 3D model fields),
– the establishment of borders of the cultivated areas and the calculation of their areas,
– inventory of farmland for crops and other agricultural purposes,
– evaluation of scope of work and monitoring their implementation, in order to optimize the construction of systems of irrigation and melioration,
– operational monitoring of crop conditions (UAVs allows you to quickly and efficiently build maps on shoots),
– tracking of NDVI (normalized vegetation index) with the aim of efficient application of fertilizers,
– evaluation of the germination of crops,
– forecasting of crop yields,
– environmental monitoring of agricultural land,
– protection of farmland
– spraying of plants by preparations to combat pests and diseases,
– evaluation of chemical composition of the soil,
– analysis zarastaniya agricultural land with trees and shrubs,
– monitoring cases of illegal land and resource use,
– definition of areas of waterlogged areas, erosion of soil, excessive moisture or drying areas.
It is known that the leaves of plantsin which photosynthesis reflect radiation from 700 to 1000 nm in the near infrared region of the spectrum. Therefore, UAVs equipped with multispectral cameras, which are used for monitoring changes of indicators of vegetation using visible and near-infrared spectrum. Indicators obtained using the near-infrared spectrum allow to detect changes of vegetation before the appropriate changes will appear in the visible spectrum. As a result, the obtained maps are determined by the actual data about the state of crops and the most vulnerable and requiring attention parts of the field.