Nanodiamonds, properties, production and application.
Nanodiamond as a nano-carbon material has unique properties that allows to use it as a powerful structurant in different materials (rubber, ceramics, plastics, etc.) to significantly improve performance.
Nanodiamond, ultradispersed diamond, is a carbon nanostructure with a size of from 1 to 10 nanometers, the atoms in the crystal lattice which are the same as in diamond. It is a polydispersed light-grey powder, consisting of agglomerates of size from one to hundreds of micrometers.
Like all nano-carbon materials: graphene, fullerene, carbon nanotubes , etc., nanodiamond has unique properties that allows to use it as a powerful structurant in different materials (rubber, ceramics, plastics, etc.) to significantly improve performance.
Nanodiamond – chemically rather inert material, not easy to oxidation. Has a uniquely high thermal conductivity, a unique value of the specific surface and surface energy, as well as the absolute properties of the dielectric. The thermal conductivity of nanodiamond largely times higher than that of silicon, aluminum, copper, silver and graphite. It is 2000 W/m•K.
Nanodiamonds obtained in several ways. Among the most common the following:
– obtaining from natural diamonds by physical methods,
– synthesis at high pressures and temperatures
– electron and ion-beam methods using irradiation of carbonaceous material with beams of electrons and ions of argon,
chemical vapor deposition of carbon at high temperatures and pressures
– electrochemical deposition on the anode,
|Specific surface, m2/g||400-500|
|Bulk density, g/cm3||0,4-0,6|
|Micrometrically density, g/cm3||3,0-3,3|
|The average size of microcrystals, nm||4,5-6,0|
|The average size of aggregates, nm||120-140|
|Oxidation temperature in air, °C||350|
|The temperature of the beginning of graphitization in vacuum, °C||900|
|The charge of particles||negative|
|Thermal conductivity, W/m•K||2000|
The application of nanodiamonds:
– as additives to lubricants to reduce the coefficient of friction,
– to create a galvanic and composite coatings to improve durability and increase of the microhardness,
– as a sorbent with a developed surface and a high adsorbing ability,
as a polishing material,
– for the production of polycrystalline diamonds
– as an additive to oils.
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