Superconductivity at room temperature.
Superconductivity at room temperature became possible with the discovery by scientists of a new substance consisting of a single atom of copper and two atoms of oxygen (CuO2), not existing in nature, using the method of vacuum arc plasma evaporation.
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Superconductivity is a physical phenomenon, consisting in an abrupt drop to zero of the electrical resistance of a substance when the temperature is below the critical.
The phenomenon of superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Dutch physicist Heike kamerlingh Onnes by investigating the dependence of electrical resistance of metals on temperature. Ultra low temperatures he got interested in in 1893 To 1908 he managed to get liquid helium. Cooling with it, metallic mercury, he was surprised to find that at a temperature close to absolute zero (4,15 K), electrical resistance of mercury abruptly drops to zero.
Subsequently it has been discovered that superconductivity have not only other pure metals (lead, niobium, tungsten, tin, etc.), but also alloys of these metals, and metals are not superconductors. Most of them had a critical temperature close to absolute zero.
Above this critical temperature metals and alloys are in good condition, and below it – in the superconducting.
In the eighties was established the new superconductors. This superconducting ceramics, superconductors iron-based Superconductors, etc. they occurred at a temperature significantly above the temperature of absolute zero.
In 1993 was opened the substance, the critical temperature of 135 K.
In 2017 a new material that is superconductive at room temperature. Scientists synthesized a particle from one atom of copper and two atoms of oxygen (CuO2), not existing in nature, using the method of vacuum arc plasma evaporation. In a certain range of magnetic field (>3 kOe) at room temperature, such particles exhibit the properties of superconductors.
The phenomenon of superconductivity at room temperature opens the way for the electrical equipment of the new generation.
– the disappearance of electrical resistance when the temperature is below the critical. The electrical resistance is zero. So, if a ring of superconductor is cooled to the critical temperature and to excite in him a constant electric current, it will flow even after you remove the power source, and as long as the ring will be maintained at a temperature below the critical.
However, if you increase the temperature of the superconductor, at a certain critical temperature value, the superconductivity disappears.
– the Meissner effect – the expulsion of a superconductor magnetic field from its volume. So, a well-known experiment in which a permanent magnet hovers above the superconductor. Inside the superconductor undamped electric current creates a magnetic field whose direction is opposite to the direction of the external magnetic field generated by the magnet. This field balances the external field pushes magnet, whereby the magnet seemed to float in space. This phenomenon is called magnetic levitation.
However, if you place a superconductor in a magnetic field and the intensity of this field is to increase, then at some critical value of intensity of the superconductivity disappears.