Digital double – a virtual model (prototype) existing in the reality of the object: part, device or process.
A few years ago the concept of the Internet of things has caused confusion even among the tech-savvy and modern people. Today it is a rapidly developing technology, successfully applied in many fields – in industry, agriculture, logistics, retail, urban construction and architecture and others. And, as a logical continuation, there technology digital DoppelgangeR, is increasingly called the technology of the future.
Digital double – a virtual model (prototype) existing in the reality of the object: part, device or process. The room is similar to a digital model in the computer allows you to store information about the primary data available at the beginning of its development or directly function as well as all the nuances of his work until failure, the end use and recycling, archive or write-off. All the data want using various sensors located on the device or near it, are flocking to the virtual prototype, where they are processed, analyzed and stored for an unlimited period of time. The latter fact allows to use them for improvement of the real model.
So, analyzing the node information, details or design on industrial lines, its operations, condition and wear and tear, you can schedule work on its repair or maintenance, timely replacement, which will reduce production losses from possible damage and stop equipment. The data will relate to not one particular part, but the entire device or an entire line.
If we consider the idea of a digital double on the example of industrial enterprises, it turns out that they are opening service centers unlimited list of possibilities. The collection and analysis of information about the real model allows to study its current state down to the smallest nuances, and thus to identify potential problems with the operation before they occur and to find the optimal way of solving them. So, engineers and maintenance personnel can determine in advance which parts need for repairs in a given period of time, the time to take care of them and carry out planned replacement to the moment the equipment fails. Also, there is the possibility of evaluating performance, and hence its increase.
The idea of digital double involves data collection not only to explore in real time, but also use them in the future. It can be:
– the development of more efficient and productive projects
– troubleshoot issues with the design in the early stages of development,
– providing necessary information driven innovation
– staff training in virtual reality, training to work with a real model and so on.
Another advantage of digital double is able to receive data almost continuously, and from anywhere in the world, and so access to information have all participants in such processes. Not so long ago such work was hampered by the low level of technology and different from other kinds of software that are installed on the platforms. This obstructed the transfer of information, distorted some of the data or were not allowed to get them within the required period. Today these obstacles have almost disappeared: the settings are collected by millions of readers and instantly flock to the designated place of treatment and then at any time can be used to improve the quality of the real prototype.
The first concept of the digital double, full and the corresponding real conditions, was described in 2002, but all these years, she continued to improve following the rapidly developing innovation. Today digital double – a virtual model that at all levels correspond to the actually existing object. The digital double may be an electronic duplicate of an already existing object, and only developed, i.e., those that will be created in the future. And the data received when testing a real model, can also be obtained on the basis of testing electronic models.
Today, there are three kinds of digital doubles:
– prototypes (Digital Twin Prototype, DTP)
– copies (Digital Twin Instance, DTI),
– aggregated counterparts (Digital Twin Aggregate DTA).
Digital Twin Prototype (DTP, prototypes) is a virtual analogue of existing in reality physical object. It includes data for comprehensive characterization of the model, including information on its creation in the real world. The list includes:
– requirements to production,
a three – dimensional model of the object,
– description of the materials and their specificity,
– carry out technological processes and/or services
– requirements for disposal.
Digital Twin Instance (DTI, instances) represent data for the description of a physical object. In most cases they contain:
– annotated three-dimensional model including the overall dimensions and tolerances
– data on the materials used by the past and present time and components,
– information about the running processes in all time periods, including while generating the object
– the results of all test operations,
– record of completed repairs (planned, unplanned, preventive), THE replaced parts and components
operational data obtained from sensors,
– monitoring parameters (early, current and expected).
Digital Twin Aggregate DTA (double aggregate) is a standard computer system that integrates all digital twins and their real prototypes to collect data and share them.
What is the meaning of the development of digital DoppelgangeR?
It is known that solutions devised on the basis of innovative technologies, allow to develop himself to technical progress, creating a new and needed capability. Thus, the use of digital double includes a number of developments, improving every day.
The main place of storage of virtual prototypes is in the cloud. To build such a storage location using a variety of informational tools. First and foremost are the numerous methods of modeling processes (physical and information), which along with its current work and allow us to make predictions for the future: how will the model if you alter its parameters (an increase in load, replacement of material, etc.). Other methods (tools) provide an opportunity to study the external parameters and the structure of the object before creating it, analyze the properties of materials or to study the existing parameters, dimensions, running processes. Others to obtain the data and reliability of the facility or system, derived on the basis of the model, analysing the consequences of failures. Note that it is possible to get together and analyze them in complex, which gives you more useful information.
Thus, the development of one of the IT industry gives impetus to the development of the other: for collecting, storing and analyzing all these data requires highly accurate methodology, reliable servers, improved program. All these processes are interrelated and that is reflected in the level of technical progress.
Technologies that make up the concept of a digital DoppelgangeR:
Each virtual model contains information about maintenance, repairs, real prototype, the features of its operation. High-quality processing of this information allows to calculate how the real object will behave in the future, the data may refer to specific details and the whole mechanical complex or the entire enterprise.
In the digital counterpart often involves the technology of machine learning in which the system automatically changes some parameters of their work, based on data from many different sources:
– controlling and measuring instruments, taking into account the indicators of the operating status of the physical model,
reports of expert committees and experts
– information about similar devices, their components,
– observations carried out physically.
Such self-improvement after applied to a real model that improves its performance by reducing repair costs or the products themselves.
Association of Internet of things and the latest information technology allows you to develop both industries. For high-quality digital doubles requires highly accurate sensors, analyzing the work of a real object to the most minor settings and the latest software, allowing time to obtain this information and process it. The improvement of such devices and allows the progress of the Internet of things, helping to make data collection efficient and cost-effective.
If we consider the history itself of the concept of digital doubles, its beginning can be found in the distant past. Since then, as people invented writing, he reflected on paper not just words, but models of different items that were previously established in his mind. All kinds of design is the cradle of digital doubles. Since the advent of computers, simulation has reached a new level: new technology made it possible to transfer drawings into virtuality, to entrust the creation of models and data calculating machines. Today, storing and creating accurate, relevant real even in the smallest parameters of the models is done in the cloud and is done almost without human intervention: almost all the information the model receives their own from sensors, sensing and analyzing devices.
At each subsequent stage, the concept acquired new technology: methods of creating models, opportunity analysis and forecasting, teaching and learning. And, judging by the swiftness of development, this process will continue and develop.
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