Supercapacitor, description, principle of operation, benefits.
A supercapacitor is a device for energy storage, which has high power and high energy. It provides a pulsed release of energy over a short time interval from 0.1 s to 10 s.
A supercapacitor is a device for accumulating energy, which has high power and high energy. The composition of the supercapacitor consists of two immersed in the electrolyte of opposite charge of the electrode, the electrode of the electrodes and the separator. The task of the separator is to prevent the charge moving between two electrodes having opposite polarity. Plates of the electrodes instead of conventional dielectrics serve as porous materials, creating an electric double layer at the interface, in particular, activated charcoal. This is distinguished from traditional batteries and capacitors. The electrodes also are made of activated charcoal or expanded metal.
The distance between the plates of a supercapacitor the distance between the separated charges (i.e., the thickness of the electric double layer) is extremely small due to the use of the electrolyte, and the area of the porous materials of the plates huge. Thanks to supercapacitors compared to conventional electrolytic capacitors have a high energy intensity, because the area of the electrodes by the use of porous materials which would create a double electric layer is increased tenfold.
Supercapacitor has other names: for example, inistr, the ultracapacitor, capacitor switching , etc.
The supercapacitor is recharged in just a few seconds-minutes. It provides a pulsed release of energy over a short time interval from 0.1 s to 10 s. the Supercapacitor does not replace a conventional battery, but is designed to work in parallel.
Performance of the supercapacitors and accumulators are defined in different terms of measurement is Farad and Ampere-hours. To calculate the amount of energy in the capacitor use the following formula:
Energy (joules) = 1/2*Capacitance (f) * Voltage squared (V2)
Russia made supercapacitors Phoenix and supercondensators modules and assemblies on their basis.
The work of a supercapacitor lies a physical process, not chemical reaction, as is typical for batteries.
The supercapacitor stores energy through electrostatic charges which are formed on the electrodes and the plates, creating a double electrical layer between the electrolyte and electrodes. This process is easily reversible. Therefore, the supercapacitors quickly and easily give energy. They can also withstand thousands of cycles of charge-discharge that does not lead to any changes in the performance measures.
– large maximum current charging and discharging,
– long service life without change in performance and capacity decrease,
– can withstand hundreds of thousands of cycles of charge-discharge without changing the performance
– high internal resistance of the supercapacitor, which prevents rapid self-discharge,
– light weight,
– high mechanical strength,
– does not depend on temperature. Work as at very low and at very high temperatures,
– the stored electric charge is constant, not reduced in the case of non-use to destination,
– quickly charged and discharged like condensers,
– easy charging without having control,
– explosion and fireproof, no toxic substances,
– no polarity. To connect and use a super capacitor in any direction. Plus and minus indicated for residual voltage after charging of the supercapacitor.
Supercapacitors can be installed on vehicles and used for smooth starting of the engine at low temperatures (-45 C and below). Supercapacitors also allow for the launch of the engine and discharged batteries.
They are parallel-connected to the battery or directly to the starter car, which completely eliminates the battery from the process of engine start.
Russia made supercapacitors Phoenix and supercondensators modules and assembled as a transducer and without the transducer voltage.
They have a capacity of up to 3000 Farad, the maximum peak current to 2600 a, maximum voltage up to 480 V, peak voltage up to 500 V. operating temperature Range is from -45 ° to ~ 65 oC.
Note: the description of technology on the example of supercapacitors Phoenix.
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