Petroleum products, petroleum products, their production and use

Petroleum products, petroleum products, the production and use of petroleum products.



 

 

Oil

Fuel , industrial oils, lubricants, technical liquids, technological compounds, other solid hydrocarbons

Production of petroleum products

 


Petroleum products:

Petroleum is a mixture of various gaseous, liquid and solid hydrocarbons, as well as individual chemical compounds derived by processing of oil, associated gas, gas condensate, etc. hydrocarbon and chemical raw materials.

The oil products include various types of fuel (petrol, diesel, kerosene etc), lubricants, electrical environments, solvents, petrochemical feedstocks, etc.

Petroleum (petroleum product) – finished product obtained during the processing of oil, gas condensate, hydrocarbon and chemical raw materials.

Waste oils – waste oils, oil rinsing liquid, and a mixture of oil and oil products generated during cleaning of storage, conveying, extracted from oily waters.

 

Fuel:

Liquid fuel oil (liquid fuel oil) – a liquid petroleum product that meets energy needs through the conversion of chemical energy of hydrocarbons into heat.

Petrol (gasoline) a liquid fuel oil for use in reciprocating engines with spark ignition.

Aviation gasoline (Avgas, aviation gasoline) gasoline for use in aviation engines.

Gasoline (motor gasoline, automotive gasoline) petrol for use in engines of ground equipment.

Gas turbine fuel (turbine fuel) – liquid fuel oil for use in land-based and marine gas turbine engines.

Aviation kerosene (jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel) – liquid petroleum fuel for use in aircraft gas turbine engines.

Diesel fuel (diesel fuel, diesel fuel) – liquid petroleum fuel for use in engines with ignition of fuel-air mixture from the compression.

Mazut (fuel oil) – a liquid petroleum fuel for use in combustion units or devices.

Bunker fuel oil (marine fuel oil) – heavy fuel oil for use in marine steam plants and engines with the ignition of the fuel-air mixture from the compression.

Residual fuel oil (furnace fuel oil)heavy fuel oil for use in stationary and mobile thermal systems.


Fuel oil open-hearth (open-hearth fuel oil) – heavy fuel oil for use in steelmaking furnaces.

Lighting kerosene (kerosine) – liquid petroleum fuel for use in household lighting and heating devices.

 

Industrial oils:

Technical oil – a liquid petroleum product or a synthetic product, lubricating the friction surfaces, used for preservation of products as insulating material and for technological needs.

Waste oil (used oil) – industrial oil that has worked a period or no longer in operation, as installed in the normative-technical documentation and drained from a working system.

Regenerowane oil (recovered oil) – technical oil obtained by purification of waste oil by physical, chemical and physico-chemical methods, with performance restored to the requirements of normative-technical documentation.

Petroleum lubricating oil (lubricating oil) – industrial oil to prevent or reduce wear of the rubbing surfaces and reduce friction losses of the slip.

Motor oil (engine oil) – oil lubricating oil for reciprocating engines of internal combustion.

Gas turbine oil (turbine oil gas) – oil lubricating oil for turboprop and turbojet engines.

Transmission oil (gear oil) – oil lubricating oil for a manual transmission.

Turbine oil (turbine oil)oil lubricating oil for the turbines.

Cylinder oil (cylinder oil) – oil lubricant for reciprocating steam engines.

Industrial oil (industrial oil) – oil lubricating oil for machines and mechanisms of industrial equipment.

Instrument oil (instrument oil) – oil lubricating oil for instruments and precision mechanisms.

Compressor oil (compressor oil) – oil lubricating oil for piston and rotary compressors.

Refrigeration oil (refrigerator oil) – oil lubricating oil for refrigerating machines.

Insulating oil (insulating oil) – maintenance oil for electrical insulation.

Preservative oil (corrosion prevention oil) – a means of temporary corrosion protection based on mineral or synthetic oil.

 

Lubrication:

Grease – pasty product or a synthetic product characterized by the presence of the structural skeleton formed by the particles of the thickener in the cell which contains the oil, and intended to reduce the wear of rubbing surfaces, maintenance products, sealing gaskets and connections.

Soap grease (grease with soap thickener, soap grease) – grease, which is used as thickener salts of higher fatty acids.

Organic lubricant (grease with organic thickener, organic grease) – grease, which as a thickener used organic compound, excluding salts of higher fatty acids and solid hydrocarbons.

The inorganic lubricant (grease with inorganic thickener, inorganic grease) – grease, which is used as thickener of inorganic substance.

Hydrocarbon grease (petrolatum) – grease, which is used as thickener solid hydrocarbons.

Antifriction lubricant (antifriction grease) – grease to reduce friction losses of the slip.

Conserving grease (corrosion prevention grease) – the means of temporary corrosion protection on the basis of the grease.

Seal lubrication (seal grease) – grease for sealing gaskets, detachable and movable joints.

 

Technical liquid:

Technical fluidoil or synthetic fluid for use as the working fluid, refrigerant, solvent

Shock-absorbing liquid (damping fluid) – technical fluid for damping mechanical vibration by absorbing kinetic energy of a moving mass.

De-icing fluid (de-icing fluid) – technical fluid to prevent icing of the surface.

Antifreeze (antifreeze) – technical waxy liquid to absorb and dissipate heat.

The hydraulic fluid (hydraulic fluid) – technical fluid for hydraulic servo-mechanisms, hydraulic transmissions.

Release liquid (parting fluid) – technical fluid to prevent direct contact of structural elements with aggressive media.

Brake fluid (brake fluid) – technical fluid for hydraulic brakes.

 

Technological compounds:

The technological composition of the petroleum product or a synthetic product for the treatment of materials and obtaining of coatings.

Process oil (metal working fluids) – technology liquid composition for use in the processing of materials by pressure, heat treatment in the processing of raw materials.

Technological lubricants (solid lubricants) – plastic technological composition for use in processing materials, metal forming and processing.

Lubricant-coolant (coolant, cutting fluid) – liquid technology composition for lubrication and cooling during the processing of materials by cutting.

Solid lubricant coating (TSP, solid film lubricant) – liquid technology the composition of the powdered lubricant, binder and solvent to obtain a solid lubricant.

Film-inhibiting composition (PINS, corrosion preventive compound, solid film) – liquid technology composition of solid hydrocarbons, inhibitors and solvent to obtain a hard film preservative coatings.

 

Other solid hydrocarbons:

Paraffin (paraffine wax) is a mixture of solid high molecular weight saturated hydrocarbons of normal structure.

Ceresin (microcrystalline wax) is a mixture of solid high molecular weight saturated hydrocarbons, predominantly of isomeric structures.

The bitumen (petroleum bitumen) is a mixture of high molecular weight, liquid or solid hydrocarbons and resinous-asphalt substances.

 

Production of petroleum products:

Production of petroleum products is a set of manufacturing operations, process equipment and systems ensuring their functioning (maintenance and repair, metrological support, etc.) for the manufacture of petroleum products, the relevant standards or technical conditions, by any means, including by mixing two or more grades of petroleum products.

 

Source: GOST 26098-84 “Petroleum products. Terms and definitions”

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