Hall effect engine (engine based on Hall effect)
Hall effect engine (the engine based on the Hall effect).
Hall effect engine (the engine based on the Hall effect) is a form of electrostatic rocket engine. It allows you to get a higher thrust density, higher flow rate of the working fluid and, consequently, a higher engine thrust than the ion engine.
The device and principle of operation of hall thruster engine
The differences and advantages of the hall effect engine compared to the ion
Approximate technical characteristics of the hall effect engine
The device and principle of operation the hall effect engine:
Hall effect engine (the engine based on the Hall effect) is one of the varieties of electrostatic rocket engine, which uses the Hall effect. Engines based on Hall effect are used on spacecraft since 1972.
The principle of operation of this engine lies in the effect of the Hall, built in 1879 by Edwin Hall (Edwin H. Hall). It is that in Explorer, which has mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields, an electric current (called the hall) in the direction perpendicular to both fields. In other words, if the electric and magnetic fields have the directions respectively of the axes X and Y, the electrical (hall effect) current has a direction along the axis Z.
Hall engine consists of an annular chamber. In other words, the engine chamber is made in the form of a ring (cylinder). On the one hand the camera is working the body, on the other hand is the efflux plasma. Inside the engine is the anode (positive electrode), a cathode (negative electrode) is located outside the engine. On the outside of the ring are magnets.
Between the anode and the cathode creates a potential difference. The annular chamber is supplied with working fluid (e.g., xenon). The discharge between the anode and cathode ionizes the working fluid, removing electrons from neutral atoms of the gas. Under the influence of electrostatic field the positive ions of gas (plasma) are accelerated in the axial direction towards the outlet of the cylindrical engine. At the exit of the engine occurs the neutralization of the positive charge of the plasma electrons that are emitted from the cathode. The expiration of positive ions from the exit wound creates thrust.
Radially acting magnetic force that is in accordance with the Hall effect leads to the appearance of electric current moving in the azimuthal direction (i.e. around the Central electrode axis of the engine). Hall current created by the movement of electrons in electric and magnetic fields.
In hall engine thrust is also created with the help of hall current crossing the radial magnetic field. Their interaction causes the electrons to revolve around the axis of the engine. These electrons knock out electrons from xenon atoms, creating xenon ions that the axial electric field accelerates in the direction of the outlet of the engine. The electron hall current under the action of the Lorentz force (resulting from the interaction of the applied radial magnetic field electric hall current) create additional traction and break out in the hole together with the positive ions.
The engine on the basis of the Hall effect allows to obtain a higher thrust density, higher flow rate of the working fluid and, consequently, a higher engine thrust than the ion engine, as in flowing stream contains positive ions and electrons, which prevents the accumulation of space charge that reduces the tension of the accelerating electric field.
Depending on the available capacity of the velocity of the working fluid can be from 10 to 50 km/s.
Diagram of the hall effect engine:
The differences and advantages of the hall effect engine compared to the ion:
– the motor based on the Hall effect at equal size has a greater thrust than ion, therefore, can accelerate a spacecraft to high speeds faster than the ion engine of comparable size.
Approximate technical characteristics of the hall effect engine:
|Power consumption, kW||1,35-10|
|The velocity of the ions, km/s||10-50|
|Time of continuous operation, years||more than 3|
Source: http://cyclowiki.org/wiki/Холловский_двигатель, http://go2starss.narod.ru/pub/E025_ID.html
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