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Chitosan is the product of the XXI century.





 

 

Chitosan called substance of the XXI century and for good reason. Chitin and chitosan possess many useful properties, making them applicable, and in some cases, essential in various sectors of the economy. At present, there are over 70 areas of practical application of chitin – chitosan and their modifications.

 

Chitosan

Properties and applications of chitosan

 


Chitosan:

Chitosan is derived from chitin, the result of processing of chitin in the harsh conditions of the alkali solution, which allows the replacement of acetyl groups of chitin by the amine groups.

Chitin – a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, related chemically to the cellulose that forms a semitransparent substance and rough is a fundamental part of the exoskeleton, or outer covering of insects, crustaceans and arachnids.

Chitin is the second (after cellulose) on the prevalence of natural biopolymer produced from a fully renewable natural materials. It is part of the supporting tissue and the external skeleton of arthropods (arachnids and crustaceans), insects, cell walls of microorganisms and fungi where chitin is complexed with proteins and mineral salts.

There are 15 known methods of obtaining chitin from crustacean shells but they are expensive. Rapid reproduction, providing a large biomass containing chitin, have domesticated insects.

Chitosan called substance of the XXI century and for good reason. Chitin and chitosan possess many useful properties, making them applicable, and in some cases, essential in various sectors of the economy. At present, there are over 70 areas of practical application of chitin – chitosan and their modifications.






The undeniable advantages of chitosan include its perfect safety for humans and the environment. In natural conditions it falls apart completely. Environmentally friendly.

 

Properties and applications of chitosan:

– nuclear industry: for containment of radioactivity and concentrations of radioactive waste

– the elimination of contaminants, recultivation of soil and water.

The adsorbent properties of chitosan are used for the estimation of natural circulation of the dispersed heavy metals and radionuclides , using the introduction of chitosan into the soil, into the water.

Chitosan contributes to the transfer of toxicants in sedentary and inaccessible to plants form, in the conditions of technogenic pollution improves soil fertility, having a high selective sorption activity to heavy metals and radionuclides.

– gornodobyvayushaya industry: for the extraction of metals from waste ore dressing processes.

The discharges of industrial facilities often contain hazardous and toxic components (metals, radionuclides, and other toxicants), the removal of which used a variety of reagents. Moreover, the adsorbents are used not only to obtain purified water, but also for the regeneration of rare earth elements and platinum group metals. Industrial technologies of metal extraction from solutions using methods of electrolysis. In these processes, may be used chitosan as the adsorbent. Also there are technologies of application of granules consisting of chitosan and magnetic powder held in a magnetic field in the flow of purified liquid. The adsorbed elements are periodically removed from the adsorbent by washing with a solution of the modified acidity





– medicine: as suture material, and wound – dressings algosaibi. In ointments, various medicinal drugs as the treatment.

Chitosan has high sorption properties. Chitosan as enterosorbent absorbs fat and cholesterol in the digestive tract. Positively charged chitosan attracts negatively charged fat, removing body fat in 10-12 times its molecular weight. In addition, chitosan has a General cleansing effect on the body: adsorb from the intestinal contents and the blood of toxic substances, products of incomplete digestion, stops the manifestation of allergic reactions, and improves the function of the intestine, liver and kidneys. Thus food enriched with chitosan, can be used in diets.

The chitosan non-toxic, has wound-healing effect, anticoagulant, antithrombogenic, antibacterial and antitumor ability. Chitosan binds salts of heavy metals, can rid the body of toxins. Inhibits the secretion of hydrochloric acid. Reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood. Increases immunity and has anti-allergic effect. Being a natural product, chitosan is completely safe and compatible with the tissues of the human body,

agriculture: fertilisers, protection of seeds and crops.

Chitosan as a means of seed treatment applied with the aim of increasing productivity. Seeds coated with chitosan sprout with a strengthened immune system and more resistant to disease. In the future plants have a strong root system, good leadership and strong stalks that help the plant take the maximum amount of nutrients and moisture, as well as to reduce soil erosion.

Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide that exhibits immunostimulatory properties, known as the inducer of baleneological. Protective effect of chitosan is based on the activation of natural (immune) of plants resources in response to the emergence of phytopathogens. Significant is also the fact that chitosan is a good growth regulating substance. Growth regulating activity of chitosan is due to the fact that the decomposition it produces nitrogen, which is easily digestible, being in the immediate vicinity of the object of influence,

– textiles: when the cloth and anti-shrinkage or water-repellent treatment of fabrics,

paper and photographic industry: for the production of high-quality and special varieties of paper, as well as to improve the properties of photographic materials,





– in the food industry acts as a preservative, clarifier juices and wines, dietary fiber, emulsifier,

– as a dietary Supplement, shows unique results as the treatment and stabilizer in food products.

Chitosan as a stabilizer of foodstuffs opens wide opportunities for its application in sauces, yogurt, pastes and other products. This property of chitosan as the ability to inhibit molding, has found its application in the development of formulations naplesnews shells for cheese. Chitosan films can help to retain moisture and to protect from moisture. Of chitosan can be produced by the edible film for packaging food, and also bioremediate packaging. The ability of chitosan to form a film to maintain humidity, reducing the number of bacteria, extending the life of the skin of perishable products, the basis of drugs that increase the storability of fruits and vegetables.

– in perfumery and cosmetics included in moisturizing creams, lotions, gels, liquid Soaps, gel toothpaste, hair products, curlers, hairsprays, shampoos, etc.

Chitosan can be widely used in cosmetics due to its structure-forming properties, compatibility with the body and ability to retain moisture. Chitosan carries a strong positive electrostatic charge, which allows him to contact with negatively charged surfaces such as hair and skin,

– in the purification of drinking water serves as a sorbent, coagulant and flocculant.

The benefits of chitosan as a chemical agent of the water purifier lies in its complete harmlessness,

– in the purification of wastewater.

Considered appropriate to apply chitosan for extraction of contaminants from process flows in lakes, lagoons and technology pools, as well as for waste water arising from these lakes into the rivers.

Wastewater from food processing industries contain mainly organic substances that can be oxidized in vivo to the environmentally friendly connections. Chitosan can be used as a flocculant in the sedimentation of protein, which enables its use for cleaning water in the production process. As a weak cationic flocculant, chitosan has a high deposition efficiency of protein compared to classical methods. The product water can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture

in livestock applied as a means of treatment and prevention, additive in food.

The property of chitosan to bind heavy metals and radionuclides, was estimated in experiments with farm animals raised on contaminated feed. The results obtained showed that chitosan is introduced into the diet of animalsfed contaminated feeds, makes it possible to reduce the level of contamination of milk and meat of experimental animals. Chitosan is also used as a treatment and prophylaxis of intestinal disorders in young animals of agricultural animals, as a carrier of veterinary medicinal products, due to the fact that can take place, without being destroyed, using a multi-chamber stomach of ruminants.