The ruby laser.
The ruby laser is a solid – state laser in which the active medium for obtaining coherent electromagnetic waves red used cultured pink ruby.
The ruby laser is a solid – state laserin which the active medium for obtaining coherent electromagnetic waves red used cultured pink ruby.
Pink ruby used as the active medium, are artificially, by growing from a melt of a mixture of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and a small part (about 0.05 %) of chromium oxide (Cr2O3). It is the chromium atoms are responsible for the generation of electromagnetic waves. Natural ruby in the concentration of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) is greater, so it is red.
The wave length of ruby laser is 694,3 nm.
in the modulation mode q-factor of its power in a single giant pulse duration of 10-20 NS is 10-50 MW,
in the mode locking peak power in a pulse duration of about 10 PS is equal to several gigawatts,
– using the long pulse duration of 0.3 to several milliseconds, its capacity is several joules.
When pumping the mercury lamps high-pressure ruby laser can work also in continuous operation. However, in this case ruby crystal must be cooled to low temperatures.
In a ruby laser population inversion of excited atoms of chromium is achieved using a pulsed gas discharge lamp (or xenon lamp, or mercury lamp). Further, chromium ions, moving from the excited state to the ground, give a quantum of electromagnetic radiation (photon).
Structurally, the ruby laser consists of a ruby rod with diameter from 3 to 25 mm and a length of 20 cm used as the active medium. Ruby crystal with one side completely closed reflecting mirror, and on the other hand, the output semi – transparent mirror. For excitation using a pulsed discharge lamp.
The ruby laser is applied in cosmetology for the removal of tattoos, in holography, in scientific experiments.
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