The lithium oxide, characteristics, properties and production, chemical reactions

The lithium oxide, characteristics, properties and production, and chemical reactions.

 

 

The lithium oxide is an inorganic substance has the chemical formula Li2O.

 

Brief description of the lithium oxide

Physical properties of lithium oxide

Obtaining lithium oxide

Chemical properties of lithium oxide

The chemical reaction of lithium oxide

The application and use of lithium oxide

 



Brief description of the lithium oxide:

The lithium oxide is an inorganic substance without color.

Since the valence of lithium is equal to one, the lithium oxide contains one atom of oxygen and two atoms of lithium.

Chemical formula of lithium oxide Li2O.

Insoluble in water and reacts with it.

Has hygroscopicity.

The lithium oxide is the only oxide of alkali metal, formed as the main product by heating the metal above 200 °C in air (there are only traces of lithium peroxide).

 


The physical properties of the lithium oxide:

Parameter name: Value:
Chemical formula Li2O
Synonyms and foreign language names lithium oxide (eng.)
The type of substance. inorganic
Appearance colorless cubic crystals
Color colorless
Taste —*
The smell
Aggregate state (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.) solid
Density (state of matter – solid, at 20 °C), kg/m3 2013
Density (state of matter – solid, at 20 °C) g/cm3 2,013
Boiling point, °C 2600
Melting point, °C 1570
Hygroscopicity hygroscopic
Molar mass, g/mol 29,8774

* Note:

— no data.

 

Obtaining lithium oxide:

The lithium oxide is obtained by the following chemical reactions:

1. by the decomposition of lithium peroxide:

2Li2О2 → 2Li2О + O2 (t = 195 oC).

2.by the interaction of lithium with oxygen:

4Li + O2 → 2Li2О.

 

Chemical properties of lithium oxide. The chemical reaction of lithium oxide:

Chemical properties of lithium oxide similar to the properties of oxides of other alkaline metals. So it is characterized by the following chemical reactions:

1. the reaction of lithium oxide with magnesium:

Li2O + Mg → 2Li + MgO (t > 800 oC).

The reaction produces magnesium oxide and lithium.

2. the reaction of lithium oxide with magnesium and hydrogen:

Li2O + Mg + H2 → 2LiH + MgO (t = 450-500 oC).

The reaction produces magnesium oxide and lithium hydride.

3. the reaction of lithium oxide with aluminum:

3Li2O + 2Al → 6Li + Al2O3 (t > 1000 oC).

In the reaction, the formed oxide of aluminium and lithium.

4. the reaction of lithium oxide with aluminum and hydrogen:

3Li2O + 2Al + 3H2 → 6LiH + Al2O3 (t = 600-700 oC).

The reaction produces aluminum oxide and lithium hydride.

5. the reaction of lithium oxide with silicon:

2Li2O + Si → 4Li + SiO2 (t = 1000 oC).

The reaction formed silicon oxide and lithium.

6. the reaction of lithium oxide with water:

Li2О + H2O → 2LiОН.

The lithium oxide reacts slowly with water, forming lithium hydroxide.

7. the reaction of lithium oxide with carbon dioxide (carbonic acid gas):

Li2О + CO2 → Li2СО3.

The lithium oxide in air reacts with carbon dioxide (which is acidic oxide), forming a salt – lithium carbonate.

8. the reaction of lithium oxide with silicon oxide:

Li2О + SiO2 → Li2SiО3 (t = 1200-1300 oC).

The oxide of silicon is also acidic oxide. The reaction produced a salt – lithium metasilicate.

9. the reaction of lithium oxide with sulfur dioxide:

Li2О + SO2 → Li2SО3.

Oxide of sulphur is also acidic oxide. The reaction produced a salt – sulfite, lithium.

10. the reaction of lithium oxide with oxide of nitrogen (IV) oxide and nitrogen (II):

Li2O + NO2 + NO → 2LiNO2 (t = 300 oC).

In the reaction, the formed salt is lithium nitrite.

11. the reaction of lithium oxide with vanadium oxide:

V2O3 + Li2O → 2LiVO2 (t = 1200 oC).

The reaction produces lithium dicsovered.

12. the reaction of lithium oxide with the oxide of tellurium:

TeO2 + Li2O → Li2TeO3 (to).

The reaction formed lithium tellurit.

13. the reaction of lithium oxide with oxide of manganese:

Mn2O3 + Li2O → 2LiMnO2 (t = 800-900 oC).

In the reaction, the formed manganese oxide-lithium.

14. the reaction of lithium oxide with yodovidona:

Li2O + 2HI → 2LiI + H2O.

The chemical reaction turns the salt lithium iodide and water.

15. the reaction of lithium oxide with hydrogen sulfide:

Li2O + H2S → Li2S + H2O (t = 900-1000 oC).

As a result of chemical reactions obtained salt is a sulfide of lithium and water.

16. the reaction of lithium oxide with hydrofluoric acid:

Li2O + 2HF → 2LiF + H2O.

As a result of chemical reaction it turns out salt is lithium fluoride, and water.

17. the reaction of lithium oxide with nitric acid:

Li2O + 2HNO3 → 2LiNO3 + H2O.

As a result of chemical reaction it turns out salt is lithium nitrate and water.

Similar are the reactions of lithium oxide and other acids.

18. the reaction of lithium oxide with methyl hydrogen (bromoiodide):

Li2O + 2HBr → 2LiBr + H2O.

As a result of chemical reactions obtained salt – lithium bromide and water.

 

The application and use of lithium oxide:

The lithium oxide is used as a component in manufacturing glass, as well as in the chemical industry.

 

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