Bioreactor, fermenter for the occurrence of biochemical reactions.
Bioreactor (fermenter) is a device in which biochemical reactions take place with the participation of live microorganisms, cell extracts or enzymes. The bioreactor is designed for cultivation of microorganisms, accumulation of biomass, synthesis of the target product.
Bioreactor (fermenter) – device, in which biochemical reactions take place with the participation of live microorganisms, cell extracts or enzymes. The bioreactor is designed for cultivation of microorganisms, accumulation of biomass, synthesis of the target product.
The purpose of any bioreactor is to create optimal conditions for vital activity of cultured therein cells and microorganisms, namely to provide the breathing supply and removal of metabolites by uniformly mixing the gas and liquid components of the contents of the bioreactor. While it is not desirable to expose the cells to heat or mechanical impact.
Typical bioreactors are vertical containers of different sizes (small – 1 to 10 l, tonnage – more than 1000 l) with a minimum number of fittings and transmitters.
Fermenters equipped with a steam jacket, agitators, barbatelli, sterile air filters, bumpers, providing the necessary temperature, gas regime, the hydrodynamic conditions in the bioreactor (i.e., the processes of mass and heat transfer). In bioreactors, there are samplers for sampling the culture fluid in the biosynthesis. There may be other design features that take into account the specifics of the biotechnological process. The work of individual units is controlled by the measuring instruments, fixing as the parameters of the technological process, and selected physico-chemical parameters of cultivation (temperature sterilization and culturing, the rotation speed of the stirrer, pressure, air flow or gases to the aeration, pricing, pH, eh, pO2, pCO2 environment).
The type of bioreactor, the surface finish of the inner walls of the device and individual components, capacity, fill factor, surface heat transfer, method of heat dissipation, type of mixing, an aerating device, valves and shut-off devices, the method of defoaming, – is not a complete list of individual elementsthat, separately and in combination, affect the process of cultivation of microorganisms and cells.
For sterilization of the bioreactor used steam under pressure. Inside the bioreactor should not be “dead zones” that are inaccessible to steam during sterilization. Sterilization is required for all valves, gauges, inlet and outlet openings. Sterility is ensured by sealing biotechnological equipment, working in aseptic conditions.
Air purification from microorganisms and particulate matter through the pre-filters (a combination of depth filters – paper, cardboard, fabric materials), which are mounted on the suction line before the compressor (the air is cleaned from particles larger than 5 µm) and fine filters (fabric OP that removes particles as small as 0.3 microns, metal-ceramic and membrane filters).
For maintenance of submerged cultivation used an automated modular system.