Sunflower, description, structure, varieties, soil, planting and growing.
Sunflower is one of the most important crops in our country. First and foremost, it is a source of vegetable oil with a high content of beneficial micro and macro, the second is the basis for organic feed, which excludes the presence of nitrates and pesticides.
Sunflower (sunflower) – an annual plant belonging to the oilseed, belonging to the genus Helianthus and to the Asteraceae family. In nature there are about 50 species, but the most common is the cultivated and wild.
Sunflower is one of the most important crops in our country. First and foremost, it is a source of vegetable oil with a high content of beneficial micro and macro, the second is the basis for organic feed, which excludes the presence of nitrates and pesticides. However, loved that plant and one of the most popular treats is the seeds that are roasted and happy to eat everything from small to large.
The birthplace of sunflower is considered southern territory of North America, where its beneficial properties were evaluated by the aborigines, for which he received the status of a sacred plant called “solar flower”. In Europe the first seeds of the sunflower were brought by the Spanish conquistadors in 1510 and planted in the Botanical garden of Madrid, which gave the plant the status of the decorative.
In Russia the sunflower came from Holland under Peter I, but its cultural status has not changed – it was still a beautiful flower adorning the gardens and orchards. Only in 1829, one of the serfs of count Sheremetev, Daniil Semenovich Bokarev invented a method of producing seed of the flower vegetable oils that was edible. First, liquid gold product was extracted using a simple press, but after 4 years it was built the first in the Russian Empire, the oil mill, and a year later the product was imported abroad.
First, the sunflower oil was taken as a delicious food item and its health benefits the world have discovered the chemical studies carried out with the development of the chemical industry. Thus, it was found that sunflower oil is rich in:
linoleic, oleic and other acids;
– the phosphatides;
– vitamins a, D, E and other elements.
It became widely used not only in food industry but also for the production of soap, creating paint products. Wastes produced after oil extraction (cake), processed, which allowed us to obtain high quality animal feed with the protein content (protein) in the range of 32-37%. As feed is also applied to fermented young shoots of sunflower (silage), which are removed before flowering plants (budding).
Distribution of sunflower as a crop began with great strides in the nineteenth century and after a few years it was purposefully cultivated in the fields of modern Ukraine and the territory of Saratov province, therefore, Russia is considered the second homeland of this plant. Accustomed to Prairie droughts and winds, the sunflower is remarkably accustomed to the mild climate and the fertile lands of Central Russia. Today, in addition to these areas, most plantations crops are in Romania, Bulgaria, Latin America (Uruguay, Argentina), the United States and the countries of the former Soviet Union: Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova, Kazakhstan.
Long-term study of structure and properties of sunflower helped to create varieties with high oil content – more than 50% resistant to very dry environmental conditions and diseases. One of them is sort of the Firstborn, created by scientists of the Krasnodar Institute of oil crops, in which the oleic acid content is 70-75%, and the yield of culture is in the range of 3-3,5 tons of seeds per hectare. However, to obtain such indicators only good seeds is not enough, there should be appropriate conditions for:
– preparation of the soil;
– the introduction of fertilizers;
– weed control;
timely cleaning and care.
That’s why, along with the introduction of new varieties in agriculture pays great attention to the intensive technologies of cultivation of this culture.
The plant is annual, herbaceous plant, but all its organs prone to intense and rapid development, which virtually eliminates the appearance of lateral shoots.
The root consists of a main rod capable of penetrating deep into the earth to 2-4 m, and lateral branches. The formation is several times faster than the ground part.
The outer surface of the stem is characterized by a roughness and a roughness, by the presence of small fibers. He has a direct structure and a different length from 70 cm to 3 m, the average stem height is about two meters. With the maturation of basket core barrel becomes loose and that he was flexible, especially in the upper part, which allows the head not to break, and slowly sink to the ground.
The leaves are large, ovate-cordate, attached to the barrel on one big stem and have veins that divide them in half. Densely covered with small villi, the tips pointed and the edges have notches resembling saw. Depending on the length of the barrel on the sunflower can be anywhere from 15 to 35 leaves.
Head or inflorescence is a circular disk (convex, flat or concave), around which there are small green leaves in several rows. The diameter depends on the type and group of plantsranges from 10-20 cm to 40-50 cm. Consists of:
– fruit-bearing flowers. Have the egg beater in the shape of a tube and the stigma that is attached to the 5 anthers. Are the Foundation of future fruits;
– non-bearing flowers. Different and incomplete set of parts, therefore not able to produce offspring in the form of grains, but transformirovalsya petals in rich shades of yellow and orange that makes it look like the sun.
All varieties of sunflower pollinated by a cross and are excellent honey plants.
Fruits sunflower seeds (sunflower seeds)that has the rind of different shades of grey and black, sometimes with longitudinal bands of gray or white. Inside is the nucleus, covered by a thin film cover. In the oilseed varieties are also present shell layer designed to protect the seeds from some pests.
In addition to the separation of the cultural and wild species, the plant still has the following groups:
The difference is in the size of seeds and their main agricultural use, as well as the ripening of plants and the nuances of its cultivation.
Confectionery sunflower varieties is varieties intended for food after a preliminary roasting, or fresh, for which he received the popular name of – snack. These seeds are large grain size, their slight separation from the shell and a pleasant taste, and buy them maybe every person at any supermarket.
Grade sunflower Nutcracker:
Country of elimination – Ukraine, Kherson region. Ripening is uniform, the average for 115 days. The variety is resistant to dry weather conditions and some diseases (Broomrape, powdery mildew, Phomopsis blight). The main parameters (average): height – 1.9 m; weight of the seed – 0,115 g; oil content up to 45%. The yield is 42 centners per hectare, the size of the basket – medium, kind – convex.
Grade sunflower Lakomka:
Is large and heavy seeds is about 0.13 g, degree of ripening – medium, rarely exceeds 110 days. The stem has a greater length – up to 190 cm, the medium basket and convex. High yields – up to 5 quintals. The oil content is within 50%, which allows you to apply the variety not only for the production of confectionery products and vegetable oils. Resistant to the most adverse weather conditions.
Grade a sunflower Diamond:
Famous for early maturation, but otherwise the characteristics are similar to other members of the group. Distinctive feature is the bright black color of the husk with grey longitudinal stripes. Seed weight – 0.12 g, oil content – 47%. The final harvest figures largely depend on the type of soil and proper cultivation of culture: when undue care sickness and the yield is reduced from 45 to 28 quintals per hectare.
Grade sunflower Suite:
One of the most resistant to pests and disease varieties, early (105 days), but with an average yield of 34 quintals. Seeds very large, the average weight – 0,145 g, oil content is about 44%. The length of the plant is 185 cm, bowl average and is an excellent source of nectar for honey bees. Of the minuses emit conditions sowing between plants should be sufficient distance.
Grade sunflower seed Nut:
The earliest variety, cleaning which is carried out using 104 days after sowing. Plants low, up to 170 cm, grain large, moderate – to 0.15 g. the oil Content is in the range of 45-50%,and per hectare are about an average of 35 quintals of seeds.
The main purpose of oilseed varieties of sunflower obtaining vegetable oil.
Their features are:
– small size of the seeds;
– high palatability (depends on the taste of the final product);
– poor separation of the shell.
For the confectionery industry olive varieties are not applied.
Grade sunflower seed Jason:
Trilinear hybrid created by breeders from Serbia. Up to 180 cm in length, has a flat basket of medium size (up to 24 cm in diameter). Seeding allows you to receive up to 45 quintals per hectare in 108 days after sowing. The weight of the seed does not exceed 0.064 g, but has a high oil content – not less than 49%. Not susceptible to diseases and pests, not prone to shedding.
Grade sunflower Striker:
Another oilseed hybrid, characterized by early maturity (105 days). The length of the stem reaches 187 cm, but the basket is small – about 20 cm oil content in the range of 47-49%, seed weight average of 0,09 g. a Yield of 44 quintals.
Grade sunflower seed Oliver:
Another Serbian hybrid with early maturity – 90-95 days. Features compact size – up to 140 cm in height. Seeds are delicate, prone to shattering, so it is important to carry out a timely harvest, which typically is 30-35 quintals (critical values are in the range of 23-45 kg/ha). Seed small, weight not more than 0.06 g but with a high oil content – up to 49%. The plant tolerates adverse weather conditions, resistant to pests and diseases.
Grade a sunflower Remisol:
A variety that is bred for cultivation in the most arid areas. Despite the fact that may be a long time without moisture, seed weight reaches 0.075 g, and oil content – 48%. The length of the plant does not exceed five feet, basket average, and high productivity of about 40 quintals. The disadvantage is the susceptibility to diseases.
Hybrids refer to annual plants, what is their main disadvantage. However, it is more than kompensiruet high yields and versatility of the most varieties suitable for oil production, and for use in food.
Grade sunflower Bogdan:
Suitable for cultivation in poorly fertile soils, does not need feeding, disease resistant and can tolerate high humidity and low temperature. In length reaches 180 cm. While the basket is small (about 18 cm), very large grain and high oil content – 48 to 50%. The crop is ready for harvest in about 112-118 days.
Grade sunflower Antey:
Has average maturity (111 days) and the high length of the stem (175 cm), medium basket (23 cm). Seeds are large, the high oil content – 52%, ha manages to collect about 43 quintals. Not affected by most common diseases, is not inclined to shattering.
Grade sunflower seed Odyssey:
Hybrid oilseed group, characterized by high indicators of productivity on all types of soils. A length of the stem reaches 170 cm, basket about 24 cm in diameter will allow to collect about 45 quintals of seeds per hectare. Maturation occurs within 105-110 days, kernels large, oil content not higher than 50%. Not affected by common disease, grows well even in arid climates.
Grade sunflower seed Yang:
The main feature is high productivity, capable of reaching 60 quintals. Is not prone to most diseases, Matures early – 104 day and oil content in seeds is about 52%. Stem length – 170 cm, basket size – 25 cm
Grade sunflower seed Alexey:
Has large grain with high oil content – up to 50%. Has a length of 170 cm, but the basket is small – up to 20 cm, with a high yield of about 45 quintals. Seed collection is carried out in 115 days, special care does not require: tolerates dry, not prone to shattering and lodging, resistant to common diseases (powdery mildew).
Although native climate for sunflower is considered a steppe, in the best way that the plant feels on the fertile land of black soil and meadow Chernozem soils. It is important to base composition of the earth – it needs to be neutral or weak, and the composition of the solution – sandy loam or mechanical.
Sunflower – undemanding plant, but in relation to the rules of crop rotation this rule does not apply. For high yield and health of plants in the soil residual moisture and lack of infections, especially uncommon. Therefore it is necessary to bring the soil nitrogen-phosphate fertilizers and solutions designed to of weed control, and seeding is best done in the fields, where earlier were grown:
– winter cereals;
– the castor;
– corn (silage).
The worst precursors of sunflower, able to send him their diseases are considered to be soybeans, tomatoes, canola and legumes.
Preparation for planting is one of the important stages on the way to a good harvest, which consists not only of choosing the right soil and the right seed treatment against possible diseases. So, to plant the most dangerous:
– powdery mildew, including about;
– the stem;
– Phomopsis blight;
– rot (white, gray, ashy, dry);
– the Septoria leaf spot and others.
For the most part these diseases are caused by parasites and fungi, which leads to slow plant growth, withering its leaves and shoots, the cessation of growth of hats.
The second kind of protection from pests. Most often, sunflowers are susceptible to the moth: it lays its eggs in the early stages of plant growth, when there is formed the cap, and after the larvae feed for them are juicy seeds. Among other insects should be afraid:
For protection from pests the best help measures such as Etchant before putting in the soil, timely removal of weed plants and the rules of crop rotation.
The emergence and growth of sunflower stem largely depend on what land was placed grain. They do not like dense layers of soil so before sowing, the soil must be loosen.
To obtain a high yield for planting should be selected large and filled with grain. Their groove – passed through a special sieve, rejecting the shallow and empty and rubbish and husks. If you have large amounts to check for fullness method can be used saline solution – it lowered the grain and leave for 10 minutes, after which an empty or those that contain a small nucleolus, remain on the surface, and large heavy and sink to the bottom.
The next step is treatment (treatment against diseases and pests). In recent years, all civilized Nations are trying to abandon pesticides and other chemical solutions, trying to change to natural solutions and mixtures. One of the most popular recipes is the mixture of crushed onion peel and garlic that are filled with boiling water at the rate of 100 g composition in 2 liters of water. It put the grain prepared for planting, low for 12 hours. This method allows not only to prevent disease of plants, but will not, unlike chemicals, the negative impact on rodents, who are fond of enjoying sunflower, and therefore, the ecosystem will not be affected.
Planting in the ground is best done in warm weather, when the ground is sufficiently warmed up – usually about 7-10 degrees. Although certain varieties of sunflower are able to tolerate short-term freezing, this heat-loving plant, so to rush into planting with unstable spring weather is not worth it.
The soil is pre-moistened, hold the tab at a distance of 90 cm from each other, in the hole put not more than three grains. Sufficient depth in Chernozemic soils is considered to be 6 cm in the steppe and dry – up to 10 cm.
The first shoots appear after a week and a half. From the moment of their appearance it is necessary to start measures on maintenance: remove weeds, undertake timely watering, and until the beginning of flowering and twice as often. After a certain number of days (for each class period of maturation of the different) cleaning. Key performance indicators for its beginning:
– drooping of his heavy head to the ground;
– dryness and extreme falling off the petals of a flower;
– the appearance of the characteristic black color of the seeds.
Repeated cultivation of sunflower in the selected area of soil is recommended not earlier than in 5-6 years.
Note: © Photo //www.pexels.com, //pixabay.com