Sucrose, properties, production and application

Sucrose, properties, production and application.



Sucrose is a disaccharide from the group of oligosaccharides, consisting of two monosaccharides: α-glucose and β-fructose with the formula C12H22O11.


Sucrose, formula, molecule, structure, substance

Physical properties of sucrose

Chemical properties of sucrose. Chemical reactions (equations) of sucrose

Obtaining and production of sucrose: sugar cane, sugar beet and sugar maple

The use of sucrose


Sucrose, formula, molecule, structure, substance:

Sucrose is a disaccharide from the group of oligosaccharides, consisting of two monosaccharides: α-glucose and β-fructose with the formula C12H22O11.

In everyday life sucrose is called sugar, cane sugar or beet sugar.

Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates that contain from 2 to 10 monosaccharide residues. Disaccharides – carbohydrates that when heated with water in the presence of mineral acids or under the influence of enzymes hydrolyzed, during the process of splitting into two molecules of monosaccharides.

Sucrose is a very common in nature the disaccharide. It is found in many fruits, fruits, berries, stems, and leaves of plants, in the SAP of trees. Is particularly high content of sucrose in sugar beet, sugar cane, sorghum, sugar maple, coconut palm, date palm, orange and other palm trees, which are used for industrial production of food sugar.

The chemical formula of sucrose is C12H22O11.

The same General chemical formula have other disaccharides: lactose, consisting of residues of glucose and galactose, and maltose is composed of glucose residues.

The structure of the molecule of sucrose, the structural formula of sucrose:

A sucrose molecule is formed from two residues of monosaccharides, α – glucose and β-fructose connected by an atom of oxygen and linked with each other due to the interaction of hydroxyl groups (two hydroxyl policealnych) – (1→2)-glycoside bond.

The systematic chemical name of sucrose: (2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3,4,5-triol.

Is also used another chemical name of sucrose: α-D-has glucopyranosyl-β-D-fructofuranoside.

Sucrose in appearance sucrose is a white crystalline substance. The taste is more sweet than glucose.

Sucrose is very soluble in water. Slightly soluble in ethanol and methanol. Insoluble in diethyl ether.

Sucrose, once in the intestine, under the action of the enzyme rapidly hydrolyses to glucose and fructose, then absorbed and enters the bloodstream.

The melting point of sucrose is 160 °C. the Molten sucrose solidifies, forming an amorphous transparent mass – caramel.

If sucrose is melted continue to heat, when a temperature of 186 °C sucrose decomposes a change in color – from clear to brown.

Sucrose serves as a source of glucose and a major source of carbohydrates for the body of the person.


Physical properties of sucrose:

Parameter name: Value:
Color white, colorless
The smell odorless
Taste sweet
Aggregate state (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure 1 ATM.) a solid crystalline substance
Density (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.) g/cm3 1,587
Density (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.) kg/m3 1587
Decomposition temperature, °C 186
Melting point, °C 160
Boiling point, °C
Molar mass of sucrose, g/mol 342,2965 ± 0,0144


Chemical properties of sucrose. Chemical reactions (equations) of sucrose:

The main chemical reactions of sucrose with the following:

1. reaction of sucrose with water (hydrolysis of sucrose):

С12Н22О11 + H2O → is c6h12o6 + is c6h12o6 (t o, kat = H2SO4, HCl).

In the hydrolysis (by heating in the presence of ions of hydrogen) sucrose is broken down into its constituent monosaccharides by rupture of glycosidic linkages between them. This reaction is the reverse process of formation of sucrose from monosaccharides.

A similar reaction occurs in the intestine of living organisms in contact with it sucrose. In the intestine of sucrose under the action of the enzyme rapidly hydrolyses to glucose and fructose.

2. qualitative reaction for sucrose (sucrose reaction with the hydroxide of copper):

2С12Н22О11 + Cu(OH)2 → Cu(C12H21O11)2 + 2Н2О, or

2C12H20O9(OH)2+Cu(OH)2 → Cu(C12H20O9(O)(OH))2+2H2O.

In the sucrose molecule has multiple hydroxyl groups. To confirm their presence using the reaction with the hydroxides of the metals, for example, hydroxide of copper.

To a solution of sucrose is added hydroxide of copper. The result is saharat of copper, and the solution is painted in bright blue color.

3. does not give the reaction of “silver mirror”:

Aldehyde groups in the sucrose is not. So she heated with ammonia solution of silver oxide does not give the reaction of “silver mirror”, because sucrose is not able to turn into an open mold containing the aldehyde group.

In addition, when heated with copper hydroxide (II), sucrose does not form red copper oxide (I).

The reaction of “silver mirror” reaction and hydroxide copper (II) with the formation of the red oxide of copper (I) characteristic of lactose and maltose.

Why sucrose is called a disaccharide nevosstanovlenie, because it does not restore Ag2O and Cu(OH)2.


Obtaining and production of sucrose:

Sucrose is found in many fruits, fruits, berries, stems, and leaves of plants, in the SAP of trees. Therefore, sucrose is due to release her from her sources: sugar cane, sugar beet, etc.


Obtaining sucrose from sugar cane:

Sugar cane is a major world culture for sugar production. It accounts for 65% of world sugar production.

Sugarcane before flowering cut off. Cut the stalks are crushed and milled. From the resulting mass squeezed juice, which contains up to 0.03 % of proteins, 0.1% of granular matter (starch), to 0.22 % nitrogen-containing mucus, 0.29% of salts (mostly organic acids) of 18.36 % sugar, 81 % water and very small amount of aromatic substances that give the raw juice kind of smell.

To clean juice added to it souhassou lime – CA(Oh)2 and heated. Sucrose enters into chemical reaction with calcium hydroxide, resulting in a soluble in water saharat calcium. In addition, other substances contained in the juice, also react with calcium hydroxide, forming a slightly soluble or insoluble salt which precipitates and is filtered off.

Then through the solution to decompose saharat calcium to neutralize excess calcium hydroxide, is passed carbon dioxide – CO2. Eventually formed carbonate of calcium – CaCO3 which precipitates. Precipitated calcium carbonate is filtered off and the solution evaporated in a vacuum apparatus to obtain crystals of sucrose. At this stage the production of sucrose still contains some impurities – molasses and has a brown color. Molasses gives the sucrose pronounced natural flavor and taste. The resulting product is called brown sugar or unrefined cane sugar. He (brown sugar) edible. It can be used in food as is or may be subject to additional cleaning.

At the last stage of production of sucrose is subjected to additional cleaning and discoloration. Eventually get refined (purified) sugar, with white.


Obtaining sucrose from sugar beets:

Sugar beet is a biennial plant. In the first year to collect the harvest of carrots and send them for recycling.

At the processing factory the roots are washed and crushed. The crushed roots are placed in the diffusers (large boilers) hot water temperature 75 OS. Hot water washes away from the crushed roots of sucrose and other components. The result is a diffusion juice, which subsequently is filtered from the contained particles of pulp.

In the next stages of production of sugar diffusion juice is purified with calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide, boiled, evaporated in a vacuum apparatus, subjected to additional cleaning, bleaching and centrifugation. End up with refined sugar.


Obtaining sucrose from sugar maple trees:

Sucrose from sugar maple trees get in the Eastern provinces of Canada.

In February-March of the trunk of a sugar maple bore. Of the holes follows the maple SAP that is collected. It contains up to 3 % sucrose.

Maple SAP is evaporated, receiving the “maple syrup”. Next “maple syrup” cleanse with calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide, is evaporated in a vacuum apparatus, subjected to additional cleaning and whitening, thereby obtaining the finished product – sugar.


The use of sucrose:

as a food and for cooking various types of food products (confectionery, drinks, sauces, etc.)

– in the confectionery industry as a preservative (,

– used for making artificial honey,

– in the chemical industry for the production of ethanol, butanol, glycerol, citric acid, dextran,etc.,

– in the pharmaceutical industry for making various medicines.


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