Unitsky string transport (SkyWay) has a high environmental friendliness and low cost of the transport infrastructure.
Unitsky string transport is the concept of ground (or rather, surface) strings of the transport system, in which light carriages move on rails-strings stretched between supports.
The technology is awaiting funding and is in the process of development!
String transport Unitsky (STU) is the concept of ground (or rather, surface) strings of the transport system, in which light carriages move on rails-strings stretched between supports.
One of the main components of the string transport system the string rail (rail-string), string or beam (a beam-string), or string a farm (farm-string) special design. Rail (beam, truss), generally represents a core steel (in the future — composite) box, inside of which is disposed a package of wound strands of wires of the strings (or ribbons, filaments,wires, and other extended security features). The inner space of the box not occupied by the strings, is filled with mineral or polymer compositions. The tension of the strings is from 10 to 1,500 tons, depending on the payload line, span lengths, rated speed modes and the type of system (mounted or suspended).
The distance between the main (anchor) supports should be from 1 to 5 km (the length of high-tensile steel wire used for the strings); the distance between the intermediate supporting legs and stands from 25 to 100 m and more. 10-20 m or more strings, the rails can be connected by transverse webs to ensure constant gauge (for double-rail options STU as possible and monorail options as hinged and suspended types). Through the use of double flange track (dvuhgrivnevka) rolling stock wheels and extra side rollers holding the track change are not critical. Temperature changes along the length of the rail kompensiruet excessive pre-tension of the strings (partly pre-tension of the body of the rail); the longitudinal thermal strain does not occur. (there are only the transverse displacement in the range of 1-3 mm in the mid span, which is not critical).
When driving a vehicle (railcar or train) on the span length of 30 m the vertical deflection of rails shall not exceed 30 mm for low-speed STU (estimated relative deformability — not more than 1/1000 as major bridges), and 6 mm for high-speed STU (estimated relative deformability of not more than 1/5000, which is higher than the requirements of the overpasses for high-speed Railways). Horizontal lateral deflection of the rails when exposed to the track structure and the vehicle lateral hurricane wind does not exceed 2-3 mm in the span of 30 m.
Construction sagging strings in outboard STU “sewn up” inside the cavity of the rail (i.e. a rail head and the strings are not parallel to each other). In hanging the same STU the rail head parallel to the string, that is posted with the SAG at every span, so each support a suspended rail-string is placed on a special cradle with a radius of 100 m and more, depending on the estimated speed. Sagging strings of rail between supports in urban suspended STU is used, the initial acceleration of the rolling stock in the initial section of the route between the neighbouring stops and, on the contrary, a brake on the end, which allows, in particular, significantly reduce the consumption of electric energy (up to 3-5 times). For this purpose, the distance between the supports is advisable to do equal to the distance between adjacent stops (500-1000 m), combining passenger stations “second level” with the anchoring pillars for such a city route.
The cost of laying the path of the double track system is estimated to developer (depending on the type and class system and movement speed) in the conditions of the plains will amount to 0.7—3.5 m $/km (in urban areas — 20-30% higher); the full cost of the STU, taking into account the cost of rolling stock and infrastructure — 0,9—6 million $/km Cost of transportation, which is the main comprehensive technical and economic characteristics of any form of transport, in this system, the “second level” will be: 1 tonne cargo of 0.5—0.7 $/100 km one passenger — 0.7 to 1.2 $/100 km (in United States dollars at the exchange rate and as of early 2013).
As a passenger and cargo-passenger rolling stock is planned to be used railcar rolling stock in the form of single self-propelled drive trains or rail buses (also referred to as the “unibuses”) and multiple units; as load (also referred to as the “yunikar”) is a train of coupled non-self-propelled freight cars with locomotive traction and freight railcar rolling stock, either separately moving each other non-driving freight wagons with an external drive. Single self-propelled cars, if necessary, can be coupled to each other in the train mechanical coupling, or gather in virtual trains with electronic coupling (the distance between individual cars in a “train” will be 100 m and more).
Rolling stock moves (in different variants of the system) at the top or bottom rails-the strings at speeds in the range from 50 to 500 km/h, and in the city — up to 150 km/h top speed of the motion depends on the dynamic stiffness (due to the string tension and the Flexural rigidity of the rail-strings) and construction of flatness of the rail-strings to the passage, and from the power of the engine and the aerodynamic qualities of the vehicle body, which are selected for a specific transport task from designed, tested and certified items, components and assemblies. There are options to rolling stock with independent traction power contact rail (electric rolling stock) and non-driven rolling stock with external actuator (e.g. pull rope).
The following actuator options for rolling stock:
Today there are several dozen choices of attachments and suspension rolling stock: passenger — accommodating from 5 to 500 passengers and develop a speed of from 50 to 450 km/h, cargo — carrying capacity from 1 t to 10 000 t. the Planned capacity of the actuator is from 5 to 500 kW and more. In the passenger rolling stock has two modes of braking: service (acceleration to 1 m/S2, the braking distance from a speed of 300 km/h in about 3.5 km) and emergency (respectively, 3.5 m/S2 and 0.9 km). The cost of a ten-seat high-speed passenger rail bus (unibus) is approximately in serial production of about 50 thousand $, and low-speed freight cars (unicare) capacity 10 tonnes — about 5 thousand $ (in United States dollars at the exchange rate and as of early 2013).
Today designed two basic types of system:
there is a hangingin which the rolling stock on the rails placed on top of a-strings (two rail-strings, or beams, strings, or farm-strings on one path stretched with the total force 50-1500 tons or more; the distance between the anchors 1-5 km or more, between the intermediate supports 30 to 50 m or more (up to 2 km supported ways of using ropes and cables); the speed of movement — up to 500 km/h;
– suspension, in which the rolling stock is suspended below the rails-the strings (one or two rail-strings are one-way, stretched with the total force 10-300 tons or more; the distance between the anchors of 1-3 km and more; speed — up to 150 km/h).
Also developed several variants (classes) of the system string transport, depending on payload and passenger-carrying rail cars:
– ultralight — up to 3 people or up to 0.5 tons of cargo;
– lightweight — up to 10 employees or up to 2.5 tonnes of cargo;
– medium — up to 25 people or up to 5 tons of cargo;
– heavy — up to 50 people or 10 tonnes of cargo;
– heavy — up to 500 people or 10,000 tonnes of cargo.
The claimed carrying capacity: 10 000 pass./day. and 10 000 t/day. — for ultralight, up to 2 million pass./day. and 2 million tonnes. for extra heavy. Capacity heavy STU similar to the carrying capacity of the trains and the metro.
– low materials consumption and the cost of the entire transport infrastructure (in comparison with other competing transport systems of the “second level” having the same performance) — 5-10 times more
– the lack of huge fuel costs for snow removal and ice for cold countries such as Russia, Canada, Belarus, Ukraine, Finland, Estonia and others
– durability of way and rolling stock (respectively, at least 50 years and 25 years, compared to asphalt roads in Russia require reconstruction every spring),
– in cities the opportunity to practice the second tier over the existing roads and, as consequence, reduction of traffic jams, up to their complete disappearance,
– on the nature of the free movement of wild and domestic animals
– roads and Railways, agricultural machinery, ground and surface (including flood) water do not overlap,
– low frictional losses (no losses in the bumps in the road and friction in the tires) and as a result, low power consumption during operation (in fuel: urban freight suspended STU — 0,2—0,3 l/100 pass.-km, intercity high-speed rail services at a speed of 350 km/h — 0.5—0.6 l/100 pass.-km),
– low percentage of land seizures under the track (50-100 times less in comparison with the mounds of Railways and roads),
– high environmental friendliness of the system (emissions less than 0.1 g/pass.-km),
– possibility of full automation, the rejection of drivers and tram driver,
– a sharp reduction of accidents and deaths due to the use of a computerized system of control and exclusion of human factor,
– safety of high-speed traffic (thanks to the “second” level of accommodation and the presence of anti-derailment system), including for terrorist acts (e.g. drop one or more supporting poles fastened to a rail-string through a special detachable mechanism will not lead to the collapse of the span and to the open strings of the rail and will only cause additional vertical deformation of the path).
the absence of significant noise, vibration, or electromagnetic influences on the environment.
Note: the description of technology by the example of string transport Unitsky.