Solar vegetari for year-round cultivation of vegetables.
Solar vegetari is a type of greenhouse with its design features for year round (365 days a year) growing vegetables, herbs, fruits and berries of exceptional quality.
Solar vegetari is a greenhouse design that allows you to maximize the use of sunlight for heating and lighting greenhouse space at any time of the year, as well as to maintain the humidity and composition of air, without complex and expensive systems. Solar vegetari is the invention of physics teacher Ivanov A.V.
Externally, the structure of the solar vegetariya as follows:
– erected on a plot having a slope of 15-35 degree slope, facing South. If the ground is level, then create it artificially.
– rectangular greenhouse with a flat roof is strictly from North to South at a slope of 15 -20 degrees.
– roof and three walls vegetariya (and South side) is covered with a translucent material (polycarbonate, etc.).
– the North wall of vegetaria must be thorough. Thanks to 95% of heat and light energy coming back to the plants – that’s the secret! The Northern wall is painted in white or covered with mirror foil. North side vegetariya is insulated with a heater. North side vegetariya can join to home or vegetari you can build separately.
– the beds inside the greenhouse vegetariya are arranged in terraces, descending from North to South. Between the beds are settling passages.
As for the dimensions of the solar vegetariya, they are limited only by the size of the site.
– in an ordinary greenhouse gets only 35% of solar energy if it has the arch, and about 20% if it has a different form. In the solar vegetaria her more at times. Sunlight is on a slanted roof vegetariya at a right angle and therefore hardly affected. All solar energy ultimately goes to heating and lighting vegetariya, and it is 4 times more than conventional greenhouse in the warm season, and 18 times more than in winter and at night.
– no need for intense ventilation. In summer the usual greenhouse is hard to ventilate, but so out of it almost completely absorbs carbon dioxide and moisture as they are for the plants is vital. In the solar vegetaria arranged a special system of ventilation, which simultaneously performs the functions of heating and watering
– compared with traditional 2-sloping greenhouse, the economic effect from cultivation of vegetable crops in the sun vegetaria three times higher
– productivity is higher than in conventional greenhouses,
plants begin to bear fruit at 20 to 30 days earlier.
Vegetaria in the solar system of ventilation is combined with a system of heating.
Under a fertile layer of soil (depth of 30-35cm.) laid a special system of pipes with perforations. The pipes should be laid along the whole of a heifer at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other. Might be easier to use PVC pipes.
Scheme of laying of pipe:
– lower layer of soil;
– bottom layer of expanded clay (for withdrawal of condensed water);
– perforated pipe;
– the top layer of soil.
Holes in the pipe are drilled throughout the bottom part (d 6-8 mm.) at a distance of 15 – 20 centimeters from each other. The lower end of the pipe on the South side of vegetaria appear on the soil surface and close fine-meshed grids (or grid) to protect against ingress of earth and organic debris. In this system, these “Windows” serve as air intakes.
On the North side of vegetaria tubes are connected to one another transverse cut (collector). From him, up the vertical pipe is laid in the capital the wall and onto the roof while adjusting the camera. This camera is located at a height of 150 centimeters from the soil surface. It is equipped with a blower motor and plugs top and bottom. A fan circulates air in vegetaria. In “winter mode” the upper plug remains closed. In the summer it is opened and thus saves the plants from overheating.
In winter, use an additional heating source that joins the system of air.
The system of ventilation in the solar vegetaria performs the functions of heating, cooling, ensure CO2 plants, drip irrigation.
During daylight, the sun heats the soil up to 30-32°C. Running the fan, to blow air into the pipe. Passing through the pipes, the air is cooled and returned to the greenhouse. Thus maintaining the temperature balance. In this case carbon dioxide, the main “food” of plants from the greenhouse is not removed.
Passing through the underground pipes, the air moisture condenseries on the walls of pipes and drains back into the soil. Layer of expanded clay allows the water to spread across the entire length of the beds. This achieves the effect of parallel – Autonomous drip irrigation of the soil. Therefore, even the most water-loving exotic tropical crops require minimal extra watering.
To obtain the effective yield of CO2 per 1 hectare of plantings shall be 300 kg On the open ground in the upper metre layer of air is only 2% the right amount of carbon dioxide. Else “gets” of organic fertilizers. In the solar vegetaria the CO2 balance is at an optimum level. Because of this, the ripening of the crops is on average one month earlier than in conventional greenhouses.
Note: the description of technology, such as solar vegetariya A. V. Ivanov.