Petroleum ether, properties, application.
Petroleum ether is a flammable liquid mixture of light aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes), which consists of pentane (С5Н12) and hexane (C6H14), which represents the low-boiling fraction of gasoline.
Petroleum ether (from pozdnelat. petroleum – oil) is a flammable liquid mixture of light aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes), which consists of pentane (С5Н12) and hexane (C6H14), which represents the low-boiling fraction of gasoline.
In addition to pentane and hexane also contains impurities, including sulfur.
Petroleum ether externally is a clear, colorless liquid with odor of gasoline.
The name of the substance is traditional, the chemical composition of petroleum ether is neither simple nor complex ether. The term “ether” is only used figuratively, denoting extreme volatility of the substance.
Petroleum ether is of two types:
– lightweight, with a boiling temperature of 40-70 °C,
– heavy, with a boiling point of 70-100 °C.
Petroleum ether is obtained from associated petroleum gas and light oil fractions.
Insoluble in water and immiscible with it. Flammable. Toxic.
|Density at 20 ° C, kg/m3 (depends on the hydrocarbon composition)||from 650 to 695|
|The temperature of boiling light petroleum ether, oC||40-70|
|The boiling point of the heavy petroleum ether, oC||70-100|
|The auto-ignition temperature, oC||246,11|
|Sulfur content, %%||not more than 0,0002|
|Specific heat of combustion, MJ/kg||43-44|
Light petroleum ether used:
– as a solvent for fats, resins, essential oils, hydrocarbons , etc.;
– as fuel for petrol lighters and catalytic heaters;
– in the production process of polyethylene and rubber;
– as the extractor of animal fats in the food industry;
– for the cleaning of wool on an industrial scale;
as eluent (mobile phase) in liquid chromatography.
Heavy petroleum ether is used:
– in the petrochemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries;
– in metallurgy and pipe manufacture for degreasing surfaces and entire details.
– gas oil,
– oil shale,
– fuel oil,
– associated petroleum gas,
– natural gas,
– landfill gas,
– shale oil,
– shale gas,
– synthesis gas.
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