Pentane, properties, and chemical reactions.
Pentane, C5H12 – organic substance class alkanes. In nature, found in natural gas extracted from gas and gas condensate fields in oil and gas, in oil.
Pentane is an organic substance class alkanes, consisting of five carbon atoms and twelve hydrogen atoms. The name comes from the root “Penta-” (translated from the ancient Greek for “πέντε” – five) and the suffix “-EN” (which means belonging to alkanes).
The chemical formula of pentane is C5H12. Has three isomers: n-pentane, isopentane (2-methylbutane) and neopentane (2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE). Pentane isomers differ in their physical properties.
Formula n-pentane CH3(CH2)3CH3 or CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3, isopentane (CH3)2CHCH2CH3, neopentane of (CH3)4C.
The structure of the molecule n-pentane:
The structure of the molecule pentane:
The structure of the molecule neopentane:
N-pentane – volatile mobile liquid with a characteristic odor.
Isopentane – volatile mobile liquid with a characteristic odor.
Neopentane – a colorless gas, without taste, with a peculiar characteristic odor.
In nature, found in natural gasextracted from gas and gas condensate fields in oil and gasin oil. Also contained in shale oil, shale gas and liquefied gas (liquefied natural gas).
Flammable and explosive.
Slightly soluble in water. Soluble in organic substances (acetone, benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, etc.).
Toxic. Isopentane has a narcotic effect. The fourth class of danger.
|The smell||a specific characteristic odor|
|Flavor (neopentane)||no taste|
|The aggregation state of n-pentane (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.)||liquid|
|The aggregate state of isopentane (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.)||liquid|
|The aggregation state of neopentane (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.)||gas|
|The density of n-pentane (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.) kg/m3||626|
|The density of isopentane (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.) kg/m3||619,7|
|The density of neopentane (at 0 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.) kg/m3||613|
|The melting point of n-pentane, °C||-129,72|
|The melting point of pentane, °C||-159,89|
|The melting point of neopentane, °C||-16,55|
|The boiling point of n-pentane, °C||36,07|
|The boiling point of isopentane, °C||Of 27.85|
|The boiling point of neopentane, °C||9,5|
|The ignition temperature of n-pentane, °C||309|
|Critical temperature of n-pentane*, °C||196,62|
|The critical temperature of isopentane, °C||187,39|
|The critical temperature of neopentane, °C||160,75|
|The critical pressure of n-pentane, MPa||3,369|
|The critical pressure of pentane, MPa||3,381|
|The critical pressure of neopentane, MPa||3,199|
|Critical specific volume of n-pentane, m3/kg||231,9|
|Critical specific volume of isopentane, m3/kg||234|
|Critical specific volume of neopentane, m3/kg||237,7|
|Explosive concentration of the mixture gas of n-pentane with air, % by volume||from 1.5 to 7.8|
|Specific heat of combustion of n-pentane, MJ/kg||45,38|
|Molar mass of n-pentane, g/mol||72,15|
* at temperatures above the critical temperature the gas cannot be condensed at any pressure.
Chemical properties of pentane are similar to the properties of other representatives of a number of alkanes. So it is characterized by the same chemical reaction.
Cm. Chemical properties of butane.
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