Oil shale, properties, chemical composition, extraction and application.
Oil shale is a mineral, a solid combustible sedimentary rock, fossil fuel composed of flammable organic (kerogen) and mineral parts.
Oil shale is a mineral, a solid combustible sedimentary rock, fossil fuel, consisting of organic and mineral parts.
Oil shale is a sedimentary rock with a layered (lamellar) structure gray, dark gray, black, brown, yellow and olive green. Easily breaks down into individual tiles, layers.
Mineral part consists of sedimentary rocks and organic – the kerogen. Kerogen is a form of unconventional oil. Outwardly, it resembles a resin. When heated, oil shale from kerogen secreted oilcalled “shale oil” or “Karaganova oil” and natural gas, known as “shale gas”.
Shale oil and light a match when burning a smell of burnt rubber, smoked heavily. Ignite and burn in it only organic substances.
Oil shale lies at depths of 80-200 meters.
According to the calculations of geologists, the reserves of oil shale an order of magnitude greater than conventional oil. However, oil shale does not play a leading economic role. He refers to alternative sources of heat and chemical raw materials.
Shale was formed millions of years ago from the remains of small marine animals, algae, higher plants and plankton at the bottom of seas, oceans or lakes under pressure. In the absence of oxygen, they are decomposed into constituents and formed polymers the form of kerogen. Polymerization occurred with the participation and at the same time the mineral component contained in the sediments at the bottom of ponds.
The main resources are concentrated in the USA (the States of Colorado, Utah, Wyoming) and are associated with the formation of the green river. Large basins are found in Brazil (Irati, paraíba), China (Fushun), Russia (Baltic, Volga, Vychegda, Timan-Pechora, Syrdarya, Amudarya basins, Kandalaksha and Bazhenovskoe Deposit). Numerous deposits of oil shale found in Bulgaria, UK, Germany, France, Spain, Austria, Canada, Australia, Italy, Sweden, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia.
The mountain sedimentary rocks is composed of the following minerals: calcite, dolomite, and hydrology, montmorillonite, kaolinite, feldspars, quartz, pyrite, and others.
The organic part consists of kerogen. Kerogen is a mixture of organic materials (Petryanov, bitumens, humic substances, etc.). Its composition varies from one field to another. It cannot be described by any single chemical formula. In any case, it is composed of hydrocarbons and impurities: hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen, etc.
In conventional oil shale kerogen fraction is 10-30 % by weight. And only in the shales of the highest quality reaches, it reaches 50-70 %. The rest is sedimentary rock.
The presence in shale hydrocarbon component allows you to retrieve it. It turns out oil and natural gas. However, their extraction is not economically and environmentally justified.
|Hardness on the Mohs scale||From 2 to 6|
|Specific heat of combustion, MJ/kg||To 14|
Oil and gas from oil shale is produced by thermal effects on kerogen contained in oil shale. It is carried out in two main ways: by mining the open or conventional mining method with subsequent distillation or extraction in the reservoir when the heating is under the ground.
Slates and products of processing of oil shale in shale oil and shale gas are used as alternative fuel, other hydrocarbons in the chemical industry for the production of polymer and other materials, as well as in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of drugs, residual rocks for production of construction and road materials.
– gas oil,
– oil shale,
– fuel oil,
– associated petroleum gas,
– natural gas,
– landfill gas,
– shale oil,
– shale gas,
– synthesis gas.
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