Nanocellulose and technology of its receipt. Waste management pulp and paper industry.
Nanocellulose is a wood fiber broken down to nanoparticles. Nanocellulose has properties such as overstrength, with its strength than stainless steel and pseudoplasticity, i.e. it is viscous under normal conditions and behaves as a liquid during physical interaction (shaking, shaking, etc.). Its amazing properties allow you to create on its basis an ultralight and ultra-strong materials.
The technology is awaiting funding!
Nanocellulose is a material, which is a set of nanoscale cellulose fibers with a high aspect ratio (length to width), the typical width of the fibers is 5-20 nm, length from 10 nm to several microns. Simply put, nanocellulose is wood fiber, broken down to nanoparticles. Nanocellulose is a colloidal solution (gel-like mass), which does not separate and does not form a precipitate. The structure of this material presents a densely Packed array of needle-like crystals.
Nanocellulose has properties such as overstrength, with its strength than stainless steel and pseudoplasticity, i.e. it is viscous under normal conditions and behaves as a liquid during physical interaction (shaking, shaking, etc.). Its amazing properties allow you to create on its basis an ultralight and ultra-strong materials.
Traditional technology of receipt of nanocellulose is relatively expensive technological process that is associated with the destruction of the lignin present in the raw materials for the production of nanocellulose and reduce the quality of the material. Lignin is a complex polymer compound contained in the cell walls and intercellular space of plants and binding of cellulose fibers. The wood of hardwoods contains 18-24% of lignin, coniferous — 27-30%.
The latest – a biotechnological method of producing nanocellulose reduces its production 3.5 times. It involves 6 stages, one of which is the preparation of pure cellulose fibers and remove lignin. A special strain of mold fungi Aspergillus niger efficiently and cheaply to destroy lignin.
As raw material for production uses various cellulose-containing materials, including waste from pulp and paper mills, which are formed in large quantities (hundreds of millions of tons) and pose a serious danger to the environment.
– on its basis are created ultra-light and ultra-strong materials: different items of products, structures, machines, and super-flexible screens, bullet-proof vests and other armored products
– in medicine and pharmacology, nanocellulose used as sorbents and bandages, in the form of tablets for treating intestinal disorders (dry nanocellulose) as excipients in pharmaceutical compositions (powder nanocellulose), in hygienic pads, tampons, diapers or dressing material (aerogel of nanocellulose), for screening of biological compounds and nucleic acids encoding a biological compound (such as film), as a filter material on the basis of nanocellulose beznakazanno for blood transfusions, for biomedical and biotechnological applications (like elastic cryo-structured gel), as a matrix for 3D cell cultures, as composite tools to create coatings in cosmetics e.g. for hair, eyelashes, eyebrows or nails,
– thanks to the ability to effectively fill gaps, nanocellulose can be used as the adhesive material for removal of technical defects
– food products. Due to the rheological properties of the gel nanocellulose can be used as low-calorie additives, replacing the carbohydrate additives used as thickeners, carriers and suspension stabilizers in a wide variety of foods. This gel can be applied for the production of fillings, chips, wafers, soups, gravies, etc.
– oil production. The use of nanocellulose as a fluid for fracturing oil-bearing formations is a potentially interesting and large-scale application. Also nanocellulose can be used as a basis for drilling fluids,
– paper and cardboard. There is a potential application of nanocellulose in the production of paper and cardboard to increase the strength of the connection between the fibers and thus creating a strong reinforcement effect on paper materials. Nanocellulose can be useful as a grease barrier packaging and as additives to improve retention and durability in wet and dry condition in paper and cardboard,
– other applications of nanocellulose: lightweight and durable armor, super-flexible screens, unique filters, flexible battery.