Magnetron sputtering technology and installation.
Magnetron sputtering is a technology of depositing thin films on a substrate using the cathodic sputtering target in plasma of the magnetron discharge diode discharge in crossed fields. Deposition of metals and alloys produced in the inert gas environment, typically argon.
Magnetron sputtering – technology for depositing thin films on a substrate using the cathodic sputtering target in plasma of the magnetron discharge — a diode discharge in crossed fields. Technological device designed to implement this technique is called magnetron sputtering systems or, for short, the magnetrons.
Deposition of metals and alloys produced in the inert gas environment, typically argon.
The principle of magnetron sputtering is based on the formation above the surface of the cathode ring-shaped plasma in the collision of electrons with molecules of gas (most often argon). The target of the magnetron sputtering device is the source of the sprayed material. Positive ions formed in the discharge are accelerated towards the cathode target bombards the surface, knocking the particles of the material.
Heavy argon ion (black ball) accelerates in an electric field and knocks of target atom of the material (red ball), which landed on the surface of the substrate, forming on the surface of the film.
Leaving the target surface particles are deposited as a film on a substrate, and partially scattered on molecules of residual gases or deposited on the walls of the working vacuum chamber.
In the collision of ions with the target surface there is a transfer of angular momentum to the material. The incident ion causes a collision cascade in the material. After repeated collisions the pulse reaches the atom located on the surface of the material, which detaches from the target and landed on the surface of the substrate. The average number of knocked out atoms on one of the incident argon ion is called the efficiency of the process, which depends on the angle of incidence, the energy and mass of ion, mass of the evaporated material and the energy of the atom in the material. In the case of the evaporation of crystalline material efficiency also depends on the position of the crystal lattice.
For effective ionization of argon sputtering material(target) is placed on the magnet. The result is the emission of electrons rotating around the magnetic field lines are localized in space and repeatedly collide with the argon atoms turning them into ions.
In the bombardment of the target surface and the ions are generated by several processes:
– ion(cathode) sputtering of the target material,
– secondary electron emission,
the desorption gas,
– implantation defects
– shock wave
Magnetron sputtering allows to obtain high ion current density, and hence high velocity spray at comparatively low pressures of about 0.1 PA or lower.
coatings obtained by this method are characterized by high uniformity, relatively low porosity and a high level of adhesion to the substrate,
– the possibility of applying coatings of complex composition,
– ability to apply coatings to large areas,
– relatively cheap method of deposition
– low substrate temperature,
– good coating uniformity,
– good handling,
– the possibility of applying multiple coatings in one technological cycle.
– in electronics: for the deposition of thin films, semiconductors, dielectrics, metals,
– in optics: for applying conductive, reflective, absorbing coatings,
– mechanical engineering: for the application of special coatings that enhance the properties of the materials used,
in light industry: for obtaining metallic fabrics.