Magnesium oxide, properties, preparation, chemical reactions

Magnesium oxide, properties, preparation, chemical reactions.

 

 

Magnesium oxide is an inorganic substance has the chemical formula MgO.

 

Brief description of magnesium oxide

Physical properties of magnesium oxide

Obtaining of magnesium oxide

Chemical properties of magnesium oxide

Chemical reaction of magnesium oxide

The application and use of magnesium oxide

 



Brief description of the magnesium oxide:

Magnesium oxide is an inorganic substance of white color.

Since the valency of magnesium is two, then the magnesium oxide contains one atom of oxygen and one atom of magnesium.

The chemical formula of magnesium oxide MgO.

Poorly soluble in water, takes her into a reaction.

Light, loose powder, easily absorbs water.

 


Physical properties of magnesium oxide:

Parameter name: Value:
Chemical formula MgO
Synonyms and foreign language names magnesium oxide (eng.)

burnt magnesia (Rus.)

magnesium oxide (OBS. eng.)

The type of substance. inorganic
Appearance white powder
Color white
Taste —*
The smell
Aggregate state (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.) solid
Density (state of matter – solid, at 20 °C), kg/m3 3580
Density (state of matter – solid, at 20 °C) g/cm3 3,58
Boiling point, °C 3600
Melting point, °C 2825
Molar mass, g/mol 40,3044

* Note:

— no data.

 

Obtaining of magnesium oxide:

Magnesium oxide obtained by calcination of minerals magnesite and dolomite.

It is the result of a chemical reaction – the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate:

CaMg(CO3)2 → Cao + MgO + CO2 (t = 900-1200 oC);

CaCO3·MgCO3 → Cao + MgO + CO2 (t = 900-1200 oC);

MgCO3 → MgO + CO2 (t > 650 oC);

CaCO3 → Cao + CO2 (t = 900-1200 oC).

CaMg(CO3)2, CaCO3·MgCO3 chemical formula of dolomite.

MgCO3 chemical formula of magnesite.

It is an industrial method for producing magnesium oxide.

 

Chemical properties of magnesium oxide. Chemical reaction of magnesium oxide:

Magnesium oxide belongs to the basic oxides.

Chemical properties of magnesium oxide are similar to the properties of the basic oxides of other metals. So it is characterized by the following chemical reactions:

1. the reaction of magnesium oxide with hydrogen:

MgO + H2 → Mg + H2O.

The reaction produces magnesium and water.

2. the reaction of magnesium oxide with carbon:

MgO + C → Mg + CO (t = 2000 oC).

The reaction produces magnesium oxide and carbon.

3. the reaction of magnesium oxide with sulfur:

2МдО + 3S → 2MgS + SO2.

The reaction of the formed sulfide of magnesium oxide and sulphur.

4. the reaction of magnesium oxide with nitrogen:

2МдО + N2 → 2Mg + 2NО.

The reaction produces magnesium oxide and nitrogen.

5. the reaction of magnesium oxide with silicon:

2МдО + Si → 2Mg + SiO2.

The reaction produces magnesium oxide and silicon.

6. the reaction of magnesium oxide with potassium:

MDO + 2K → Mg + K2O.

The reaction produces magnesium oxide potassium.

7. the reaction of magnesium oxide with calcium:

MLA + CA → Mg + Cao (t = 1300 oC).

The reaction produces magnesium and calcium oxide.

8. the reaction of magnesium oxide with aluminum:

3МдО + 2Al → 3Mg + Al2О3.

The reaction produces magnesium oxide and aluminum.

9. the reaction of magnesium oxide with chlorine and carbon:

MgO + Cl2 + C → MgCl2 + CO (t = 800-1000 oC).

The reaction produces magnesium chloride and oxide of carbon.

10. the reaction of magnesium oxide with water:

MgO + H2O → Mg(Oh)2 (t = 100-125 oC).

Magnesium oxide reacts with waterforming magnesium hydroxide.

11. the reaction of magnesium oxide with carbon dioxide (carbonic acid gas):

MgO + CO2 → MgCO3.

Magnesium oxide reacts with carbon dioxide (which is acidic oxide), forming a salt – magnesium carbonate.

12. the reaction of magnesium oxide with sulfur dioxide:

MgO + SO2 → МдЅО3;

MDO + ЅО3 → МдЅО4.

Oxide of sulphur is also acidic oxide. The reaction produced a salt, respectively in the case of magnesium sulfite, in the latter case, magnesium sulfate.

13. the reaction of magnesium oxide with silicon oxide:

MgO + SiO2 → МдЅіО3 (t = 1100-1200 oC).

The oxide of silicon is also acidic oxide. In the reaction, the formed salt is a silicate of magnesium.

14. the reaction of magnesium oxide with phosphorus oxide:

3MgO + P2O5 → Mg3(PO4)2;

3MgO + P2O3 → Mg3(PO3)2;

Oxide of phosphorus is also acidic oxide. The reaction produced a salt respectively of magnesium orthophosphate and magnesium phosphite.

15. the reaction of magnesium oxide with aluminum oxide:

MgO + Al2O3 → MgAl2О4 (t = 1600 °C).

The oxide of aluminum is amphoteric oxide. This means that as the amphoteric oxide, aluminium oxide exhibits the properties of both acidic and basic compounds. The reaction produced a salt of magnesium aluminate (spinel).

16. the reaction of magnesium oxide with oxide of iron:

MgO + Fe2O3 → MgFe2О4 (to).

The reaction produced a salt – magnesium ferrite. The reaction takes place during annealing of the reaction mixture.

17. the reaction of magnesium oxide with the oxide of nitrogen:

MDO + 2N2О5 → Mg(NO3)2.

In the reaction, the formed salt is magnesium nitrate.

18. the reaction of magnesium oxide with hydrofluoric acid:

MgO + 2HF → MgF2 + H2O.

As a result of chemical reaction it turns out salt is a fluoride of magnesium and water.

19. the reaction of magnesium oxide with nitric acid:

MgO + 2HNO3 → 2Mg(NO3)2 + H2O.

The chemical reaction turns the salt magnesium nitrate and water.

Similar are the reactions of magnesium oxide and other acids.

20. the reaction of magnesium oxide with methyl hydrogen (bromoiodide):

MgO + 2HBr → MgBr2 + H2O.

As a result of chemical reactions obtained salt – magnesium bromide and water.

21. the reaction of magnesium oxide with yodovidona:

MgO + 2HI → MgI2 + H2O.

As a result of chemical reactions obtained salt – iodide of magnesium and water.

22. the reaction of magnesium oxide with calcium oxide and silicon:

2MgO + CaO + Si → CaSiO3 + 2Mg.

As a result of chemical reactions obtained salt is a silicate of calcium and magnesium.

23. the reaction of magnesium oxide with sodium chloride:

MgO + 2NaCl → MgCl2 + Na2O.

As a result of chemical reactions obtained salt is magnesium chloride and sodium oxide.

24. the reaction of magnesium oxide with ferric chloride:

3MgO + 2FeCl3 → 3MgCl2 + Fe2O3.

As a result of chemical reactions obtained salt is magnesium chloride and iron oxide.

25. the reaction of magnesium oxide with potassium hydroxide:

MgO + 2KOH → Mg(OH)2 + K2O.

As a result of chemical reaction is obtained a magnesium hydroxide and a potassium oxide.

 

The application and use of magnesium oxide:

Magnesium oxide is used for the production of refractories, cements, cleaning oil products, as a filler in production of rubberas a food additive E-530.

 

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