Iron, properties of atom, chemical and physical properties

Iron, properties of atom, chemical and physical properties.

 

 

 

Fe 26 Iron

55,845(2) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6

 

Iron — element of the periodic system of chemical elements D. I. Mendeleev, with atomic number 26. Located in the 8th group (old classification — side subgroup of the eighth group), the fourth period of the periodic system.

 

General information

Properties of an atom

Chemical properties

Physical properties

Chemical reactions

Table of chemical elements of D. I. Mendeleev

 

 

General information

 
Name Iron/ Ferrum
Symbol Fe
Room at the table 26
Type Metal
Open Known since ancient times
Appearance, etc. Malleable, ductile metal with a silvery-white color
The contents in the earth’s crust 6,3 %
The contents in the ocean A 3.0×10-7 %

Properties of an atom

 
The atomic mass (molar mass) 55,845(2) and. E. M. (g/mol)
Electronic configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6 4s2
The radius of the atom 126 PM

Chemical properties

 
Oxidation +6, +3, +2, 0
Valence +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
Covalent radius 117 PM
The radius of the ion (+3e) 64 (+2) 74 PM
Electronegativity Of 1.83 (Pauling scale)
Energy of ionization (the first electron) 759,1 kJ/mol (7,87 eV)
Electrode potential Fe←Fe3+ -0.04 In,
Fe←Fe2+ In -0,44

Physical properties

Density (under normal conditions) 7,874 g/cm3
Melting point 1538 °C (1811 K)
Boiling point 2861 °C (3134 K)
UD. the heat of fusion 13,8 kJ/mol
UD. heat of evaporation ~340 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25,14 j/(K·mol)
Molar volume 7,1 cm3/mol
The thermal conductivity (at 300 K) 80.4 W/(m·K)
The electrical conductivity in the solid phase 10 x 106 Cm/m
Superconductivity at a temperature of
Hardness 4 on the Mohs scale, 608 MPa Vickers
The lattice structure body-centred cubic
The lattice parameters 2,866 Å
Debye Temperature 460

 


Chemical reactions:

1. The reaction between iron and carbon:

3Fe + C → Fe3C.

The reaction produces iron carbide.

2. The reaction between iron and oxygen:

3Fe + 2O2 → Fe3O4 (t = 150-500 °C),

2Fe + O2 → 2FeO,

4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3.

The first reaction is the reaction of combustion of iron in air. The second reaction takes place by blowing air through molten iron.The first reaction produces iron oxide (II, III), the second oxide iron (II), the third – iron oxide (III).

3. The reaction of interaction of iron and red phosphorus:

Fe + 3P → Fe3P (t = 600-700 °C).

The reaction formed a phosphide of iron. Also formed Fe2P, FeP, FeP2.

4. The reaction between chlorine and iron:

2Fe + 3Cl2 → 2FeCl3 (t = 250 °C).

The reaction forms a chloride of iron.

5. The reaction between iron and sulfur:

Fe + S → FeS (t = 600-700 °C),

Fe + 2S → FeS2 (t = 689 °C).

The first reaction produces iron sulfide, the second – the disulfide of iron.

6. The reaction between iron and fluoride:

2Fe + 3F2 → 2FeF3 (t = 300 °C).

The reaction formed a fluoride of iron.

7. The reaction between iron and bromine:

2Fe + 3Br2 → 2FeBr3 (t°).

The reaction produces bromide of iron. In the course of the reaction is bromine in a saturated solution. The reaction proceeds while boiling.

8. The reaction between iron and selenium:

Fe + Se → FeSe (t = 600-950 °C).

The reaction of iron selenide is formed.

9. The reaction between iron and bromine:

Fe + Br2 → FeBr2 (t = 600-700 °C).

The reaction produces bromide of iron.

10.The reaction between iron and iodine:

Fe + I2 → FeI2 (t = 500 °C),

3Fe + 4I2 → Fe3I8.

The first reaction produces iodide of iron, in the second – iodide of iron (II, III). The second reaction proceeds slowly with the grinding of the reaction mixture.

11. The reaction between iron and tellurium:

Fe + Te → FeTe (t = 500 °C).

The reaction produced iron telluride. The reaction proceeds at a temperature of 600-950°C.

12. The reaction between silicon and iron:

2Si + Fe → FeSi2.

The reaction forms a silicide of iron. The reaction proceeds with fusion of the reaction mixture.

13. The reaction between iron, silicon, and oxygen:

2Fe + Si + 2O2 → Fe2SiO4 (t = 1100-1300 °C),

2Fe + 2Si + 3O2 → 2FeSiO3 (t = 1100-1300 °C).

The first reaction produces iron orthosilicate, in the second – metasilicate of iron.

14. The reaction between iron, nitrogen, and lithium:

Fe + N2 + 3Li → Li3FeN2 (t ≈ 600 °C).

The reaction produced dinitrodiphenyl lithium.

15. The reaction between iron and carbon monoxide:

Fe + 5CO → [Fe(CO)5] (t = 150-200 °C).

The reaction produced iron PENTACARBONYL. The iron powder is heated in a stream of CO at a pressure 1·107-2·107 PA).

16. The reaction between iron and sulphur oxide:

2Fe + 3SO2 → FeSO3 + FeS2O3

The reaction produces iron sulfite and thiosulfate iron. In the course of the reaction is a wet sulfur dioxide. The reaction proceeds slowly at room temperature.

17. The reaction between iron and water:

3Fe + 4H2O → Fe3O4 + 4H2 (t = 570 °C).

The reaction produced iron oxide (II,III) and hydrogen. The reaction proceeds at a temperature of not more than 570°C. This reaction is historically the first method of producing hydrogen.

18. The reaction between iron, water and oxygen:

2Fe + 2H2O + O2 → 2Fe(OH)2.

The reaction produced iron hydroxide. The reaction proceeds slowly. Corrosion of iron.

19. The reaction between iron, water, oxygen and carbon monoxide:

2Fe + 2H2O + O2 + 4CO2 → 2Fe(HCO3)2.

The reaction forms a bicarbonate of iron. The reaction proceeds slowly.

20. The reaction of interaction of iron (III) oxide and iron:

Fe2O3 + Fe → 3FeO (t ≈ 900 °C).

The reaction produced iron oxide (II).

21. The reaction of interaction of iron oxide (II, III) and iron:

Fe3O4 + Fe → 5FeO (t = 900-1000 °C).

The reaction produced iron oxide (II).

22. The reaction of interaction of zirconium oxide(IV), carbon, and iron:

ZrO2 + 2C + Fe → (Zr,Fe) + 2CO (t = 1400-1600 °C).

The reaction formed ferrozirconium and oxide of carbon.

23. The reaction of interaction of iron, metagalaktika Nickel and water:

Fe + 2NiO(OH) + 2H2O ⇄ Fe(OH)2 + 2Ni(OH)2.

The reaction produces ferric hydroxide and a hydroxide of Nickel, Nickel-iron galvanic cell.

24. The reaction between iron and nitric acid:

Fe + 6HNO3 → Fe(NO3)3 + 3NO2 + 3H2O,

Fe + 4HNO3 → Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O

4Fe + 10HNO3 → 4Fe(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O,

5Fe + 12HNO3 → 5Fe(NO3)2 + N2 + 6H2O (t = 0-10 °C).

The first reaction produces nitrate of iron, nitric oxide (IV) and water, the second – nitrate of iron, nitric oxide (II) and water, the resulting third – nitrate of iron (II) ammonium nitrate and water, the result of the fourth – nitrate of iron, nitrogen, and water. During the first reaction is concentrated nitric acid, in the course of the second 50% solution of nitric acid during the third diluted solution of nitric acid (6.5 per cent) in the fourth – a very dilute solution of nitric acid. During the fourth reaction is also formed as an impurity – N2O, NH4NO3.

25. The reaction of interaction of iron, nitric acid and oxygen:

4Fe + 12HNO3 + 3O2 → 4Fe(NO3)3 + 6H2O.

In the reaction, the formed nitrate of iron and water. It is an industrial method of obtaining nitrate of iron.

26. The reaction between iron and nitric acid:

As a result of reaction formed. In the course of the reaction is. The reaction between iron and phosphoric acid:

4Fe + 3H3PO4 → FeHPO4 + Fe2(PO4)2 + 4H2.

The reaction formed gidrogenfosfat iron orthophosphate iron and hydrogen. In the course of the reaction is the diluted solution of phosphoric acid.

27. The reaction between iron and hydrogen fluoride:

Fe + 2HF → FeF2 + H2.

In the reaction, the formed iron fluoride and hydrogen. In the course of the reaction is the diluted solution of fluoride.

28. The reaction between iron and bromovalerate:

Fe + 2HBr m FeBr2 + H2 (t = 800-900 °C).

The reaction produces bromide of iron and hydrogen.

29. The reaction of interaction of iron, sodium hydroxide and water:

Fe + 2NaOH + 2H2O → Na2[Fe(OH)4] + H2 (t°).

The reaction formed tetrahydrobiopterin sodium and hydrogen. The reaction proceeds while boiling the solution in a nitrogen atmosphere.

30. The reaction of interaction of iron, potassium hydroxide and potassium nitrate:

Fe + 2KOH + 3KNO3 → K2FeO4 + 3KNO2 + H2O (t = 400-420 °C).

The reaction formed a ferrate of potassium, nitrite of potassium and water.

31. The reaction of the electrolysis of concentrated aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide and iron:

Fe + 2KOH + 2H2O → 3H2 + K2FeO4.

The reaction formed a ferrate of potassium and hydrogen.

32. The reaction of interaction of iron, peroxide of potassium and water:

Fe + 3K2O2 + 2H2O → K2FeO4 + 4KOH.

The reaction formed a ferrate of iron, and potassium hydroxide. The reaction proceeds slowly in the concentrated potassium hydroxide solution.

33. The reaction of interaction of iron and ammonia:

4Fe + 2NH3 → 2Fe2N + 3H2 (t = 350-550 °C).

In the reaction, the formed iron nitride and hydrogen. Also formed FeN, Fe4N.

34. The reaction between copper chloride and iron:

CuCl2 + Fe → FeCl2 + Cu

The reaction formed chloride of iron and copper.

35. The reaction of interaction of iron, sodium hydroxide, oxygen and water:

4Fe + 20NaOH + 3O2 + 6H2O → 4Na5[Fe(OH)8] (t = 20-25 °C).

The reaction formed octahydrocyclopenta and sodium. In the course of the reaction is 50% solution of sodium hydroxide.

36. The reaction of interaction of iron, sodium hydroxide, bromine and water:

2Fe + 14NaOH + 3Br2 + 2H2O → 2Na4[Fe(H2O)(OH)7] + 6NaBr (t = 50-60 °C).

The reaction formed gatheredtogether of sodium and bromide of sodium. In the course of the reaction is 50% solution of sodium hydroxide.

37. The reaction between sulphide of lead and iron:

PbS + Fe → Pb + FeS (t = 1000 °C).

In the reaction, the formed lead , and iron sulfide.

38. The reaction of interaction of iron and benzene:

18Fe + C6H6 → 6Fe3C + 3H2 (t = 700 °C).

The reaction produces iron carbide and hydrogen. The reaction proceeds in vacuum.

39. The reaction of interaction of iron, carbonate of potassium and sulfur:

6Fe + 4K2CO3 + 13S → 6K[FeS2] + K2SO4 + 4CO2 (t = 900-1000 °C).

The reaction formed disulfiram potassium, sulphate of potash and oxide of carbon.

40. The reaction between iron chloride and water nitroil:

2Fe + 6NO2Cl + 6H2O → 2FeCl3 + 6HNO3 + 3H2.

The reaction produces ferric chloride, nitric acid and hydrogen.

41. The reaction of interaction of iron, sodium Iodate and hydrogen peroxide:

2Fe + NaIO3 + H2O2 → NaI + 2FeO(OH) (t°).

The reaction produces sodium iodide and metagalactic iron. The reaction proceeds at reflux in air.

42. The reaction between sulphide of antimony and iron:

Sb2S3 + 3Fe → 2Sb + 3FeS (t = from 600 to 1300 °C).

In the reaction, the formed antimony and iron sulfide. Fusion of the reaction mixture.

43. The reaction between sulphide of bismuth and iron:

Bi2S3 + 3Fe → 2Bi + 3FeS (t = 1000 °C).

In the reaction, the formed bismuth and iron sulfide.

44. The reaction between chloride of antimony and iron:

2SbCl3 + 3Fe → 2Sb + 3FeCl3

In the reaction, the formed antimony and chloride of iron. The reaction proceeds in a concentrated solution of hydrogen chloride.

45. The reaction between chloride of vanadium and iron:

3VCl4 + 4Fe → 3V + 4FeCl3 (t = 900 °C).

In the reaction, the formed vanadium and ferric chloride.

46. The reaction between copper nitrate and iron:

Cu(NO3)2 + Fe → Fe(NO3)2 + Cu.

In the reaction, the formed nitrate of iron and copper.

47. The reaction between nitrate of silver and iron:

2AgNO3 + Fe → Fe(NO3)2 + 2Ag.

In the reaction, the formed nitrate of iron and silver.

48. The reaction between iron and sulphate of copper:

Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + Cu.

The reaction produces iron sulfate and copper.

 

Table of chemical elements of D. I. Mendeleev

 

1. Hydrogen
2. Helium
3. Li
4. Beryllium
5. Bor
6. Carbon
7. Nitrogen
8. Oxygen
9. Fluoride
10. Neon
11. Sodium
12. Magnesium
13. Aluminium
14. Silicon
15. Phosphorus
16. Sulfur
17. Chlorine
18. Argon
19. Potassium
20. Calcium
21. Scandium
22. Titan
23. Vanadium
24. Chrome
25. Manganese
26. Iron
27. Cobalt
28. Nickel
29. Copper
30. Zinc
31. Gallium
32. Germanium
33. Arsenic
34. Selenium
35. Bromine
36. Krypton
37. Rubidium
38. Strontium
39. Yttrium
40. Cubic Zirconia
41. Niobium
42. Molybdenum
43. Technetium
44. Ruthenium
45. Rhodium
46. Palladium
47. Silver
48. Cadmium
49. Indium
50. Tin
51. Antimony
52. Tellurium
53. Iodine
54. Xenon
55. Cesium
56. Barium
57. Lantan
58. Cerium
59. Praseodymium
60. Neodymium
61. The promethium
62. Samarium
63. Europium
64. Gadolinium
65. Terbium
66. Dysprosium
67. Holmium
68. Erbium
69. Tullius
70. Ytterbium
71. Lutetium
72. Hafnium
73. Tantalum
74. Tungsten
75. Rhenium
76. Osmium
77. Iridium
78. Platinum
79. Gold
80. Mercury
81. Thallium
82. Lead
83. Bismuth
84. Polonium
85. ASTAT
86. Radon
87. Frances
88. Radium
89. Anemone
90. Thorium
91. The protactinium
92. Uranium
93. Neptunium
94. Plutonium
95. Americium
96. Curium
97. Berkley
98. California
99. Einsteini
100. The fermium
101. Mendeleevo
102. The nobelium
103. Lawrence
104. Rutherfordi
105. Dubna
106. Cyborgy
107. Bore
108. Chassi
109. Materii
110. Darmstadtium
111. Rentgeny
112. Copernici
113. Nichani
114. Planovi
115. Of Muscovy
116. Livermore
117. Tennessen
118. Ohanneson

 

Table of chemical elements of D. I. Mendeleev

 

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