Hydrated fullerene is the fullerene molecule C60, encased in a voluminous shell of water molecules. It is characterized by high biological and chemical activity and strong antioxidant properties.
Fullerene is able to create aqueous solutions, forming water-specific water clusters (complexes), called a hydrated fullerene. The most studied are aqueous solutions of fullerene C60. As a result of its interaction with water forms a so-called hydrated fullerene is a molecule of fullerene C60, encased in a voluminous shell of water molecules. All this water cluster (system) has the formula (C60@nH2O)mH2O.
In the complex of fullerene C60 molecule is surrounded by several spherical layers interacting with each other molecules of water. The first water layer contains 22-24 H2O molecule. The size of the first layer is of the order of 1.6-1.8 nm, while the radius of the fullerene C60 – 0,357 nm. The fullerenes formed around the first layer of water can impact on neighbouring bulk water and regulate its structure in specific spherical cluster, increasing it in size. The first layer is formed and follows the second, etc. layers of water molecules. Subsequent spherical layers have respectively dimensions 3,4; 7,1; 10,9; 14,5; 18,1; 21,8; 2,4; 28,8; 32,4 and 36.0 nm.
Hydrated fullerene exhibits a wide spectrum of biological actions both in vivo and in vitro even at very low doses, in the absence of toxicity. It also has unique chemical activity: on the one hand, it is a strong antioxidant and can neutralize the active radicals on the other, is a donor of electrons to oxygen, i.e. prooxidants.
Hydrated fullerene has a high antioxidant activity, 100 – 1000 larger than the effect of known antioxidants, such as vitamins E and C, carotenoids, flavonoids, ionol, etc. Mechanism of antioxidant action of hydrated fullerene also is unique. First, it does not suppress the natural level of free radicals in the body. Secondly, it becomes active beyond this level. And the more they become, the more active becomes hydrated fullerene. Thirdly, the hydrated fullerenes neutralize free radicals on its own (it does not come with the radicals in the reaction), and via water molecules that are structured around it in the water cluster in spherical layers (shells). Free radicals react with water molecules and resulting in neytralizuya. Fourth, hydrated fullerene, in fact, is an antioxidant,a catalystthat starts the process of neutralizing free radicals at the cost of the water molecules. It is able to neutralize an unlimited number of active radicals.
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