GOST 8736-2014 Sand for construction works. Technical specifications (with Amendment).
SAND FOR CONSTRUCTION WORKS
Sand for construction works. Specifications
Date of introduction 2015-04-01
Goals, basic principles and main procedure of works on interstate standardization established in GOST 1.0-2015 “interstate standardization system. Basic provisions” and GOST 1.2-2015 “interstate standardization system. Interstate standards, rules and recommendations on interstate standardization. Rules of development, adoption, renewal and cancellation”
Data on standard
1 DEVELOPED by Federal state unitary enterprise “Scientific-research and design Institute for problems of extraction, transport and processing of mineral raw materials in the industry of construction materials” (FSUE “Vnipiistromsyre”)
2 SUBMITTED by the Technical Committee for standardization TC 465 “Construction”
3 ACCEPTED by the Interstate Council for standardization, Metrology and certification (Protocol dated September 30, 2014 N 70-P)
The adoption voted:
|Short name of the country on MK (ISO 3166) 004-97||Country code MK (ISO 3166) 004-97||Abbreviated name of the national authority for standardization|
|Armenia||AM||Ministry Of Economy Of The Republic Of Armenia|
|Belarus||BY||Gosstandart Of The Republic Of Belarus|
4 by Order of the Federal Agency for technical regulation and Metrology dated November 18, 2014 N 1641-St inter-state standard GOST 8736-2014 introduced as a national standard of the Russian Federation from April 1, 2015
5 REPLACE GOST 8736-93
6 EDITION (February 2019) adjusted (ICS 10-2015)
Information about the changes to this standard is published in the annual reference index “National standards”, and the text changes and amendments – in monthly information index “National standards”. In case of revision (replacement) or cancellation of this standard a notification will be published in the monthly information index “National standards”. Relevant information, notification and lyrics are also posted in the information system of General use – on the official website of the Federal Agency for technical regulation and Metrology on the Internet (www.gost.ru)
This standard applies to natural Sands with a true density of grains 2.0 to 2.8 g/cm3 and blends of natural sand and sand from the screenings of crushing, designed for use as fillers of heavy, light, fine-grained, porous and silicate concretes, mortars, dry building mixtures, for the device of the bases and coatings of automobile roads and grounds airport runways and aprons of aerodromes, roadsides, production of roofing and ceramic materials, reclamation, improvement and planning and other types of construction works.
This standard does not apply to sand of eliminations of crushing of dense mountain rock.
2 Normative references
This standard uses the regulatory references to the following international standards:
GOST 8735-88 Sand for construction works. Test methods
GOST 25584-2016 Soils. Laboratory determination of filtration coefficient
GOST 30108-94 Materials and products construction. Determination of specific effective activity of natural radionuclides
Note – When using this standard appropriate to test the effect of reference standards in the information system of General use – on the official website of the Federal Agency for technical regulation and Metrology on the Internet or in the annual information index “National standards” published as on January 1 of the current year, and the editions of the monthly information index “National standards” for the current year. If the reference standard is replaced (amended), then the use of this standard should be guided by replacing (amended) standard. If the reference standard is cancelled without replacement, then the situation in which the given link applies to the extent that does not affect this link.
3 Terms and definitions
This standard applies the following terms with respective definitions:
3.1 sand: Natural inorganic granular material with the size of grains up to 5 mm, formed by the natural breakdown of rocks and resulting in the development of boulder-gravel-sand, gravel-sand and sand deposits.
3.2 sand enriched with: Natural inorganic granular material with the size of grains up to 5 mm, with improved grain composition and lower content of dust and clay particles, obtained with the use of special equipment.
3.3 graded sand: Natural granular inorganic material, divided into two or more fractions with the use of special equipment.
4 Technical requirements
4.1 Sand, clean sand graded sand shall conform to the requirements of this standard and be manufactured according to the technical documentation approved by the manufacturer.
4.2 Principal parameters and sizes
4.2.1 depending on the grain composition (see table 3) and the content of dust and clay particles (see table 4) the sand is divided into two classes:
Depending on grain size (module size) sand class I and class II are subdivided into groups:
– sand grade I – increased size, large, medium and small.
– sand class II – increased size, large, medium, small, very small, thin and very thin.
4.2.2 Each group of sand characterize the value of the fineness modulus of the MC, given in table 1.
|A group of sand||Module size MK|
|Very thin||To 0.7|
4.2.3 Complete the remaining sand on the sieve N 063 must match the values specified in table 2.
In mass percent
|A group of sand||Full residue on sieve N 063|
|Very small||To 10|
|Note – as agreed of manufacturer with the consumer in the sand class II variance is allowed full rest on a sieve N 063 above, not more than ±5%.|
4.2.4 Content of the sand grains with grain size over 10; 5 and less than 0.16 mm should not exceed the values given in table 3. For Sands used in the composition of asphalt mixes, the content of grains of less than 0.16 mm is not standardized.
In mass percent
|Class of sand||A group of sand||The content of grains of size|
|SV. 10 mm||SV. 5 mm||Less than 0.16 mm|
|I||Increased size, large and medium||0,5||5||5|
|Large and medium||5||15||15|
|Small and very small||0,5||10||20|
|Thin and very thin||Not allowed||Not regulated|
4.2.5 Content in sand, dust and clay particles and clay lumps shall not exceed the values given in table 4.
In mass percent
|Class of sand||A group of sand||The content of dust and clay particles||The content of clay in lumps|
|I||Increased size, large and medium||2||0,25|
|II||Increased size, large and medium||3||0,5|
|Small and very small||5||0,5|
|Thin and very thin||10||1,0|
|Note – the Content of dust and clay particles in the very fine sand class II by agreement with consumer it is permitted to 7% by weight.|
4.2.6 the Enriched sand is characterized by the following quality indicators:
– module size;
– grain composition;
the content of dust and clay particles, including clay in lumps.
4.2.7 the fineness Modulus of enriched sand shall be as given in table 1.
4.2.8 Complete the remainder of the enriched sand on the sieve N 063 shall conform to the values given in table 2.
4.2.9 Enriched sand on the grain composition must meet the requirements for Sands of class I of increased size, large, medium and small, are shown in table 3.
4.2.10 Graded sand can be produced in the following fractions (or mixtures thereof):
– St. 2.5 to 5 mm;
over 1.25 to 2.5 mm;
over 0.63 to 1.25 mm;
St. 0,315 to 0,63 mm;
St. 0.16-0,315 mm.
Allowed to issue fractions of graded sand other sizes or their mixtures in the ratios agreed with the consumer.
4.2.11 the contents in the fractionated sand grains larger than 5 mm, determined via the fraction of St 2,5 to 5 mm, should not exceed 5% by weight.
4.2.12 the Contents in each fraction fractionated sand grains larger than the largest dimension of the granules and less than the smallest size should not exceed 5% by weight.
4.2.13 the contents in the fractionated sand, dust and clay particles should not exceed 1% by weight for a fraction St of 2.5 to 5 mm and 1.5% for other factions.
4.2.14 Sand, enriched sand and graded sand, designed for use as aggregates for concrete, shall be resistant to the chemical action of alkalis of cement.
4.2.15 Maximum permissible content in the Sands of harmful components and impurities and the list of rocks and minerals, attributable to harmful components and impurities, are given in Appendix A.
4.2.16 Sands by treatment with sodium hydroxide solution (colorimetric test for the determination of organic impurities according to GOST 8735) should not give the solution the color corresponding or darker than the color standard.
4.2.17 the Content of clay particles, determined by the method of swelling in sand, used in road construction must meet the requirements of GOST 8735.
The value of the filtration coefficient determined during the test of the sand according to GOST 25584.
4.2.18 Sands should not contain extraneous contaminating impurities.
4.2.19 it is possible to supply mixtures of natural sand and sand from the screenings of crushing according to GOST 31424 when the content last not more than 20% by weight, wherein the mixture shall conform to the requirements of this standard.
It is possible to supply mixtures of natural sand and sand from the screenings of crushing according to GOST 31424 when the content of more than 20% by weight, wherein the mixture shall conform to the requirements of GOST 31424.
The sand of eliminations of crushing in the composition of the mixtures, having a true density of the grains more than 2.8 g / cm3 or containing grains of rocks and minerals, attributable to harmful components in excess of their allowable content, or contains various harmful components are released for specific types of construction works according to normative and technical documents developed in accordance with established procedure, and coordinated with specialized in the field of corrosion laboratories.
4.2.20 the manufacturer at the customer’s request shall specify the following characteristics of the sand, mounted geological exploration:
– mineralogical and petrographic composition, indicating the rocks and minerals that are attributable to the harmful components and impurities;
– the content of organic impurities;
the true density of the grains of sand.
4.3 Radiation-hygienic evaluation
Sands should be given to the radiation-hygienic assessment, the results of which establish the scope of its application. Sand depending on the values of the specific effective activity of natural radionuclides Aeff is used:
– Aeff to 370 Bq/kg in newly-built residential and public buildings;
– Aeff St 370 to 740 Bq/kg for road construction in the territory of settlements and areas of promising development, and also in the construction of industrial buildings and constructions;
– Aeff St. 740 to 1500 Bq/kg in road construction outside the settlements.
If necessary, the national rules in force in the territory of the state, the value of specific effective activity of natural radionuclides can be changed within the limits specified above.
5 acceptance Rules
5.1 Sand, enriched sand and graded sand must be accepted by service of technical control of the manufacturer.
5.2 To check the quality of sand, enriched and fractionated the Sands to the requirements of this standard, conduct acceptance testing and periodic testing.
5.3 Acceptance inspection at the factory is carried out daily by testing the joint sand replacement samples selected in accordance with GOST 8735.
During acceptance inspection will determine:
– grain structure;
– the content of dust and clay particles;
– the content of clay in lumps;
– the presence of contaminating impurities.
5.4 periodic testing of the Sands determine:
– once per quarter bulk density (bulk density with moisture during shipment define if necessary) and the presence of organic contaminants (humic substances);
– once a year and whenever you change the properties of the developed breed true density of the grains, the content of rocks and minerals, attributable to harmful components and impurities, specific effective activity of natural radionuclides.
Periodic monitoring of the specific effective activity of natural radionuclides is carried out in specialized laboratories, accredited in the prescribed manner on the right of carrying out gamma-spectrometric tests or radiation-metric laboratories of supervisors.
In the absence of data exploration in radiation-hygienic evaluation of the Deposit and the conclusion of the class Peskov, the manufacturer conducts the radiation-hygienic evaluation of the developed sections of rocks and rapid method directly in the mine or in the warehouses of finished products (map of the alluvium) in accordance with the requirements of GOST 30108.
5.5 Acceptance and delivery of sand, enriched sand and graded sand carried out by the parties.
The party believe the amount of sand installed in the supply contract at the same time and shipped to one consumer in one train or in any vessel. When shipping by road transport by party believe the amount of sand delivered to one consumer in one day.
5.6 the Selection and preparation of sand samples for quality control at the factory is carried out in accordance with the requirements of GOST 8735.
5.7 the Consumer in monitoring the quality of the sand needs to apply the 5.8-5.11, the order of sampling. When unsatisfactory results of control checks on the grain composition, content of dust and clay particles and clay lumps in the batch of sand does not accept.
5.8 the Number of point samples taken for quality control check of sand in each audited batch, depending on batch volume must be not less than:
|if the volume of the party||350 m3||10;|
|over 350 up to 700 m3||15;|
|over 700 m3||20.|
From point samples to get the combined sample, characterizing the controlled batch. Averaging, reduction and sample preparation is carried out according to GOST 8735.
5.9 For quality control check of the Sands being shipped by rail, spot samples are taken during unloading of the wagons from a stream of sand on conveyor belts used to transport it to the warehouse of the consumer. When unloading the car select five spot samples in equal time intervals. The number of cars is determined based on the desired number of point samples in accordance with 5.8. Cars taken at the direction of the consumer. If the party consists of one carriage, when unloading select five spot samples from which the combined sample.
If the conveyor transport when unloading do not apply, spot samples are taken directly from the cars. For this purpose, the surface of the sand in the carriage leveled and in the sampling points dig wells with a depth of 0.2-0.4 m of sampling Points should be located in the center and four corners of the car, the distance from the sides of the car to the sampling points should be at least 0.5 m. Samples from wells taken away the shovel, moving it upwards along the walls of the wells.
5.10 For reference check the quality of sand supplied by water transport, spot samples are taken during unloading of ships. In the case of using the unloading belt conveyors spot samples are taken after equal time intervals from a stream of sand on the conveyors. During ship unloading grab cranes, spot, scoop samples are taken at regular intervals of time as unloading directly from the newly formed surface of the sand in the ship, not the hole.
For a reference check sand disembarking from ships and put on card of the alluvium method of dredging, spot samples are taken in accordance with GOST 8735, paragraph 2.9.
5.11 For quality control check of sand, shipped by road, spot samples are taken during unloading of the cars.
In the case of use when unloading sand belt conveyors spot samples are taken from the stream of sand on the conveyor. During the unloading of each car take a single point sample. The number of cars is determined based on the desired number of point samples 5.8. Cars choose at the direction of the consumer.
If the party is less than ten cars, samples of sand were taken in each vehicle.
If the conveyor transport when unloading of cars is not used, spot samples are taken directly from vehicles. The surface of the sand in the car even in the center of the body dig the hole to a depth of 0.2-0.4 m From the hole of the sample of sand taken away the shovel, moving it upward along the wall of the hole.
5.12 the Quantity of sand is determined by the volume or mass. Measurement of sand carried in cars, boats or cars.
The sand is shipped in wagons or cars, weighed on a vehicle scale. A lot of sand, shipped in vessels to determine the vessel’s draught.
The amount of sand from units of mass to units of volume counted by the values of the bulk density of the sand, determined by its humidity during the shipment. The contract for the supply point adopted by agreement of the parties the estimated moisture content of the sand.
5.13 the manufacturer shall accompany each batch of sand supplied by a quality document in which you specify:
– the name of the manufacturer and his address;
– number and date of issuance of the document;
– the name and address of the consumer;
– the batch number, the name and quantity of material;
– numbers slips, and vehicles;
– grain composition of sand, enriched sand;
– grain mixtures or fractions of narrow size fractions (for graded sand);
– the content of dust and clay particles, clay lumps;
– the content of hazardous components and impurities;
– the presence of contaminating impurities;
bulk density and filtration coefficient (at the request of the consumer) in the sand, enriched sand;
– specific effective activity of natural radionuclides;
– the designation of this standard.
6 test Methods
6.1 Testing of sand is carried out according to GOST 8735.
6.2 the filtration Coefficient of sand and enriched sand used in road construction, is determined according to GOST 25584.
6.3 the Content of clay particles by the method of swelling in sand, used in road construction, is determined according to GOST 8735.
6.4 Specific efficient activity of natural radionuclides is determined according to GOST 30108.
6.5 Resistance of Sands to the effects of harmful components and impurities determined according to GOST 8735 for mineralogical-petrographic composition and content of hazardous components and impurities.
7 Transportation and storage
7.1.1 Sand, enriched sand and graded sand is transported by railway, water and automobile transport in accordance with cargo carriage regulations applicable to transport of a specific kind.
7.1.2 Dry graded sand transporterowych as separate fractions or mixtures of specialized vehicles (cement trucks, capsules and other means of transportation providing protection from moisture and the ingress of contaminants).
The permissible moisture of sand is determined by the consumer, thus the range of permissible moisture content shall be within 0.1% to 0.5% by weight, if otherwise not specified in other regulations.
7.2.1 Sand and enriched sand is stored in the warehouse of the manufacturer and the consumer in terms of protecting them from contamination.
7.2.2 Dry graded sand should be stored in dry indoor areas or in closed bins (silos), excluding moisture and impurities.
7.2.3 When shipping and storing enriched sand and sand in the winter time the manufacturer should take measures to prevent smershevtsy (shoveling, handling special solutions, etc.).
Annex a (mandatory). The permissible content of harmful components and impurities
The permissible content of rocks and minerals, attributable to harmful components and impurities in the sand used as aggregate for concrete and mortar, shall not exceed the following values:
– amorphous varieties of silica, soluble in alkalis (chalcedony, opal, flint, etc.), – not more than 50 mmol/l;
– sulphur, sulphides, except for pyrite (marcasite, pyrrhotite, etc.), and sulfates (gypsum, anhydrite, etc.) in SO3 – not more than 1.0%; pyrite in SO3 – not more than 4% by weight;
– mica is not more than 2% by weight;
halide compounds (halite, sylvite, etc.), including water soluble chloride, calculated as chlorine ion – not more than 0.15% by weight;
– coal – not more than 1% by weight;
– organic matter (humic acid) – less quantity that gives the solution of sodium hydroxide (colorimetric test according to GOST 8267) color, corresponding color of the reference or darker of that color. Use sand that does not meet this requirement is allowed only after receiving positive test results of sand in the concrete or mortar on the characteristics of durability.
The permissible content of the zeolite, graphite, oil shale is set on the basis of studies of the effect of sand on durability of concrete or mortar.