Clonal micropropagation is a fundamentally new method of vegetative propagation.
Clonal micropropagation is a fundamentally new method of vegetative propagation – getting in vitro (in vitro) by the asexual plant, genetically identical to the original instance.
For seed plants characterized by two methods of propagation: seed and vegetatively. Both of these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages of seed propagation should be attributed, first and foremost, the genetic diversity of the resulting planting material and duration of juvenile period. Vegetative reproduction remains the genotype of the parent plant and reducing the duration of juvenile period. However, for most types (especially for trees) the problem of vegetative propagation is not fully resolved.
This is due to the following reasons:
– not all rocks, even in juvenile stages, can also reproduce vegetatively with the required efficiency (oak, pine, spruce, walnut, etc.);
– almost impossible using grafting to propagate a tree species in the age of 10-15 years;
– not always possible to obtain standard planting material (possibility of accumulation and transmission of infection);
– complexity and complexity of the operations during the reproduction of adults (woody) plants by using vaccinations;
– inefficiency of the developed technologies for producing sufficient quantities of genetically uniform material during the year.
Advances in culture of cells and tissues has led to the creation of a fundamentally new method of vegetative propagation — micropropagation (receiving in vitro (in vitro), by asexual plant, genetically identical to the original instance). The method is based on the unique ability of plant cells to realize the inherent totipotency, that is, under the influence of exogenous influences to give rise to a vegetative organism.
In accordance with scientific terminology cloning involves obtaining identical organisms from a single cell.
Clonal micro propagation includes the following methods:
– the cultivation of meristematic tissue isolated from the apical and lateral vegetative buds of the plant;
– strengthening of existing micro plants meristematic tissue by microcristalina;
the induction of adventitious occurrence of kidney tissue micro plants.
The process of micropropagation can be divided into 4 stages:
1. The choice of the donor plant, isolation of explants and getting good at growing sterile culture.
2. Actually micropropagation, when it reaches the maximum number of meristematic clones.
3. Rooting of multiplied shoots and then adapt them to soil conditions, and if necessary the Deposit of regenerated plants at low temperature (+2 ° C, +10 ° C).
4. The cultivation of plants under greenhouse conditions and their preparation for sale or planting in the field.
At each stage of cultivation of micro plants is selected a certain nutrient media. Before you enter into the culture of a particular plant species, undergoing testing for the virus, given the fact that for each family and species of plants has its own set of viruses which affect both the appearance of the plant and its metabolic processes, photosynthesis, reproductive performance and quality of the crop. At each stage of cultivation of plants carry out strict quality control.
Adaptation of micro plants to non-sterile conditions, and then growing them in controlled conditions is conducted in greenhouses.
Thanks to the use of technology mikroprivodki for authoring Vysotsky V. A. are available from the greenhouse semi-dwarf varietal seedlings, which doraschivayutsya in the open field to the suitability for planting in the garden.
– clonal micro propagation helps to obtain genetically uniform planting material;
– freeing plants from viruses by the use of meristem culture;
– high multiplication factor (105 – 106 – for herbaceous, flowering plants, 104 – 105 – for shrubby woody plants and 104 – coniferous);
– reducing the duration of the selection process;
– accelerate the transition of plants from juvenile to reproductive phase of development;
– propagation of plants difficult propagated by conventional methods;
– ability to conduct work throughout the year;
– possibility of automation of the process of growing.
– improvement of planting material,
– fast reproduction of valuable commercial varieties
– the reproduction of endangered species of plants.