Bulldozer, types, types, classes, operating equipment, use and characteristics.
Dozer is a self propelled crawler or wheeled machine with working equipment, which cuts, moves and spreads the material by moving the machine forward or attachments that are used to implement the pressure or traction.
Dozer is a self propelled crawler or wheeled machine with working equipment, which cuts, moves and spreads the material by the movement of the machine forward or attachments that are used to implement the pressure or traction.
Bulldozer – self-propelled earth-moving machine, which is a tracked or wheeled tractor, tractor and the like vehicle.
Dozer self – propelled crawler or wheeled (or other) machine, equipped with front mounted working on the blade (with a shield), which cuts, moves and spreads the material when moving forward. The blade is the main working body of the bulldozer, which distinguishes it from other types of road construction equipment. With the help of the blade produces movement of bulk cargo, as well as Stripping and grading.
The main parts of the bulldozer are the basic tractor and working equipment. When installed on a bulldozer from the rear side of the basic machine ripping equipment (Ripper) get the performance of a bulldozer-Ripper.
Originally the word “bulldozer”, which appeared in the late XIX century, belonged to any force able to move a large mass. Subsequently, at the beginning of XX century this term was used for the tractor, with front metal shield.
Bulldozers klassificeret the purpose, type undercarriage, construction work equipment, a traction class of the base tractor, type of control system.
By appointment distinguish bulldozers for General purpose and special bulldozers. The first is a bulldozers to perform basic types of earth-moving and support work in a variety of soil and climatic conditions. The special bulldozers are for example various engineering military vehicles, tractors, pushers, underground and underwater models, i.e. they are designed to work in specific soil conditions or technological conditions.
The type of undercarriage bulldozers are tracked or wheeled bulldozers, depending on the type of the basic machine.
Widely used crawler bulldozers due to their high permeability for various types of terrain (including swamps, Sands, etc.), high-power and high traction properties. They provide minimal ground pressure. However, moving them on roads with asphalt coating requires the use of special equipment, such as trawl.
Wheel dozers are high mobility and ability to independently travel long distances on roads with asphalt coating. They can be used mostly on sites with a solid base.
On thrust class, which means the nominal power of the traction base of the tractor, the following bulldozers:
– small-sized bulldozers (force of thrust to 0.9 t, the power of 18.5-37 kW)
– light bulldozers (force of thrust of 1.4-4 tons, power 37-96 kW),
– heavy bulldozers (force of thrust of 6-15 tons, power 103-154 kW),
– heavy bulldozers (force of thrust 50-100 tons, power 510-880 kW).
Design of work equipment distinguish bulldozers:
with fixed blade,
– with a rotary blade,
– with a blade of two articulated halves,
– with Ripper.
The type system blade control distinguish bulldozers:
– hydraulically operated,
– with mechanical (cable box) control.
The blade is the hinged equipment for dozers, graders, loaders, tractors and vehicles used for the development of soils, snow and other works. Unlike buckets, dumps not suitable for loading soil into a vehicle.
The dozer blade is a heavy metal plate fitted to the front of the base machine (tractor, wheeled vehicle, etc.), which is used for pushing objects and fill dirt, sand, soil, snow and other loose materials.
The dozer blade is the main working equipment of the bulldozer.
Along the bottom edge of the blade is achieved by mounting the knives or teeth. The sides of the blade can be welded so-called “cheek” (side plates) for preventing the dispersion of floating material.
Dumps all types of bulldozers are equipped with mechanisms with hydraulic, mechanical (cable box) or an Electromechanical drive for lifting-lowering of the blade, twists in the plan, distortions in the transverse plane, tilt forward and backward in the course. The dumps are attached to the traction vehicle via a frame (pushing device).
The volume of soil that can be moved in front of the dozer blade, is called a perspective drawing. It can be calculated mathematically by using the width (length) and height of the blade. When this curved part of the blade is not taken into account.
The efficiency of the bulldozer is determined by the characteristics of blade – ratio of the magnitude of maximum tractive force of the bulldozer to the length of the knife blade and its variety. The latter, in turn also determines the direction of use of bulldozer and its use in various production operations.
The larger the value of the ratio of the tractive force of the bulldozer to the length of the knife blade, the more durable soils can develop a bulldozer.
Dozer blades usually come in several varieties:
– blade of the two articulated halves.
Fixed dozer blade is set perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the basic machine. Respectively to modify the blade angle in the horizontal plane from the longitudinal axis of the base machine in such a bulldozer impossible.
From rotary dozer with operator can change its angle of rotation in both directions from the longitudinal axis of the machine (in horizontal plane) or perpendicular to it.
U dozer blade with gidroperekisi (or remote change of the cutting angle) with the operator changes its position relative to the vertical plane. This blade is designed for grading, mainly used in road construction. Gidroperekisi can be installed on fixed and rotary dumps.
From the blade, consisting of two articulated halves, each half is set at various angles to the longitudinal axis of the base of the machine (in horizontal plane) or perpendicular to it. This blade is designed for a variety of road and earthmoving.
Heaps also come in spherical, hemispherical and direct. Separately, you can select the Sigma blade.
Straight blade outwardly is a straight or more curved plate. The straight blade is used for Stripping work.
Universal blade consists of three plates: one Central and two lateral, welded to the Central plate at an angle so that the contour of the blade is formed a semblance of a circle (sphere). This allows maintenance to shift the ground to the center of the blade and provides a small percentage of the loss of floating material. Used this type of blade for moving loose materials.
Semi-universal blade the same spherical, just the angle of attachment of the side plates and longer side plates are smaller relative to Central plate. This type of blade is universal. It is not only used for moving bulk materials, but also for dense soils, planning and overburden removal.
Sigma-blade so named because its shape resembles the Greek letter Sigma – Σ. Its Central part is easily incorporated into the soil, and form edges prevent spillage of materials. It is designed for Stripping work for dense soils.
In addition, there are many specific dumps:
– blade for the clearance of minefields
The grubber is designed to remove stumps of small trees, shrubs with the root system, hidden wood residues and boulder stones.
Buffer the blade has a special design. It is a kind of straight fixed blade with rubber shock absorbers to absorb mechanical shocks when towed pull scrapers.
Reclaiming the blade is designed to remove the fertile layer of soil. Compared to the other dumps it has a greater width (length).
Coal and peat dumps are designed for work with these types of materials. Peat the blade is equipped with a system of gidroperekisi is kind of straight fixed blade. The coal blade is also equipped with a system gidroperekisi and is a kind of spherical blade with a larger area.
Ripper – a long, like a claw device that is installed on the back of the tractor and is designed for loosening hard, stony and frozen soils.
Ripping equipment is installed not only in bulldozers but also in many cases also on the tractors and graders.
The Ripper can be performed in one device (teeth) or in groups of 2 or more devices (of the teeth).
Different rippers for General and special purposes. At first, the ripping depth is up to 100 cm. the Second is for deeper loosening.
Bulldozers supplied with interchangeable and other work equipment (Adonikam, expanders, otkrytkami and other), expanding the scope of their application and effectiveness on separate works.
The main quality parameters of bulldozer include the following indicators:
the traction class of basic tractor (tractor), kN (TS),
– structural mass, t,
– maximum traction with a total operating weight kN
– power of engine, kW (HP)
– length of blade, mm
– height of blade, mm
– rise of the blade above the bearing surface, mm
– lowering the blade below the support surface, mm
– the volume of the prism drawing,
– the cutting angle, (°),
– the angle of transverse tilt of the blade, (°),
– the blade angle in the plan, (°),
– speed km/h: forward/backward,
– type of transmission
– the type of control working bodies,
maximum ripping depth, mm,
– the working width of the cultivator, mm,
– number of teeth, pieces.
– the type of fastening of the tooth,
– type shock absorber,
allowable speed difference when pushing, km/h,
in the absorber, mm
– a device for starting engine at low temperatures,
– the number of types of additional working equipment, PCs,
– structural mass of the working equipment, t,
– fuel tank capacity, l,
– MTBF, morochas,
– fixed-failure operating time, morochas,
– set the resource before the first capital repairs, morochas,
– specific total operational complexity technical services, pers·h/motocar,
– operational complexity every shift maintenance,
– specific gravity, t/TC,
– specific consumption of fuel, g/m3 • m
– specific consumption of the working liquid, g/motocar,
– efforts on controls, N: on the levers and the pedals
– vibration level, dB: motorman’s seats, the floor of the cab and controls
– noise level, dBA: workplace of the driver and in the working area of the bulldozer
– the temperature at the working place of machinist, °C,
– internal dimensions of cab, mm,
– the level of contamination in the workplace of the driver, mg/m3,
– dust levels at the working place of machinist, mg/m3,
– visibility, happy
– layer-by-layer cutting and digging, leveling and layout of the soil,
– layer-by-layer cutting and digging of minerals and other materials
the removal of fertile surface layer of the earth,
– the movement of rocks, soil, bulk and other materials
– stacking of rocks, soil, bulk and other materials,
– the construction of embankments,
– sweep slopes,
– development of shallow channels,
– felling trees, cutting shrubs, uprooting stumps, removing stones,
– clearing surfaces of debris and snow,
– backfilling of trenches and pits,
– use as pushers (e.g., scrapers) and tractors.
Technical characteristics of the bulldozer T-130:
A bulldozer of T-130 were produced from 1969 to 1988 Chelyabinsk tractor plant on the basis of crawler tractors T-130 in two versions: regular and swamp (T-130B) with a larger area of the tracks.
T-130 was completed with various attachments and is a base for many kinds of machinery such as pile drivers, pipe layers, drilling rigs, and for many others.
Below are the technical characteristics of the tractor T-130:
|Design weight, kg||12720|
|Ground clearance, mm||415|
|Type engine||four-stroke diesel, turbocharged, multi-fuel|
|Power of engine, HP.||140|
|Specific consumption of fuel, g/kWh (g/HP-HR)||244,3 (180)|
|Fuel tank, l||290|
|Cooling system, l||60|
|Lubrication system of the engine, l||32|
|Side reducer (each), l||12|
|Hydraulic system, l||100|
|Overall dimensions of tractor t-130:|
|Specific ground pressure, MPa||0,05|
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