Bhutan, preparation, properties, chemical reactions
Bhutan, preparation, properties, and chemical reactions.
Butane, C4H10 – organic substance class alkanes. In nature, found in natural gas extracted from gas and gas condensate fields in oil and gas. Is also formed in the cracking of petroleum products.
Butane, formula, gas, specifications, characteristics
The chemical reaction equation of obtaining Bhutan
The application and use of Bhutan
Butane, formula, gas, features:
Bhutan – organic substance class alkanesconsisting of four carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms. The name comes from the root “booth” (the French name of butyric acid – acide butyrique) and the suffix “-EN” (which means belonging to alkanes).
The chemical formula of butane is C4H10. Has two isomers n-butane and isobutane. In chemistry the name “Bhutan” is used primarily to refer to n-butane. It is a mixture of n-butane and its isomer isobutane.
Rational formula n-butane CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3, isobutane CH(CH3)3.
The structure of the molecule n-butane:
The structure of the molecule of isobutane:
Butane is a colorless gas, without taste, with a peculiar characteristic odor.
In nature, found in natural gasextracted from gas and gas condensate fields in oil and gas. For the isolation of natural and associated petroleum gas produced by cleaning and separation of gas.
Is also formed in the cracking of petroleum products., including shale oil.
Also contained in shale gas and liquefied gas (liquefied natural gas).
Flammable and explosive.
Slightly soluble in water and other polar solvents. But soluble in some nonpolar organic substances (methanol, acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, diethyl ether, etc.).
Low toxicity, but has a harmful effect on the human nervous system (poisoning, vomiting, possible fatal outcome), has narcotic properties, can cause asphyxiation and cardiac arrhythmia, causing the dysfunction of the lungs and the breathing apparatus. The fourth class of danger.
Physical properties of butane:
|The smell||a specific characteristic odor|
|Aggregate state (at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure of 1 ATM.)||gas|
|Density (state of matter – liquid, at 0 °C), kg/m3||601,2|
|Density (state of matter – gas, at 0 °C), kg/m3||2,672|
|The melting point of n-butane, °C||-138,4|
|The melting point of isobutane, °C||-159,6|
|The boiling point of n-butane, °C||-0,5|
|The boiling point of isobutane, °C||-11,7|
|The auto-ignition temperature, °C||372|
|Critical temperature*, °C||152,01|
|Critical pressure, MPa||3,797|
|Critical specific volume, m3/kg||228|
|Explosive concentration of the mixture of gas with air, % by volume||from 1.4 to 9.3|
|Specific heat of combustion, MJ/kg||45,8|
|Molar mass, g/mol||58,12|
* at temperatures above the critical temperature the gas cannot be condensed at any pressure.
Chemical properties of butane:
Bhutan difficult chemical reactions. In normal conditions does not react with concentrated acids, melted and concentrated alkalis, alkali metals, Halogens (except fluorine), potassium permanganate and potassium dichromate in an acidic medium.
Chemical properties of butane are similar to properties of other representatives of a number of alkanes. So it is characterized by the following chemical reactions:
1. catalytic dehydrogenation of butane:
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 → CH2=CH-CH2-CH3 + H2 (kat = Pt, Ni, Al2O3, Cr2O3, increased to).
2. galogenirovannami Bhutan:
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 + Br2 → CH3-CHBr-CH2-CH3 + HBr (hv or increased to);
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 + I2 → CH3-CHI-CH2-CH3 + HI (hv or increased to).
The reaction is self-perpetuating. A molecule of bromine or iodine under the action of light decomposes to the radicals, then they attack molecules of Bhutan, taking from them an atom of hydrogen, this produces free butyl CH3-CH·-CH3, which collide with molecules of bromine (iodine), destroying them and forming new radicals of iodine or bromine:
Br2 → Br·+ Br· (hv); – initiation reactions of halogenation;
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 + Br· → CH3-CH·-CH2-CH3 + HBr; – the chain growth reactions of halogenation;
CH3-CH·-CH2-CH3 + Br → CH3-CHBr-CH2-CH3 + Br·;
CH3-CH·-CH2-CH3 + Br· → CH3-CHBr-CH2-CH3; – open circuit reactions of halogenation.
Galogenirovannami is one of the substitution reactions. First halogenides least gidrirovanny carbon atom (atom is tertiary, then secondary, primary atoms halogenide least). Galogenirovannami Bhutan takes place in stages – one stage is replaced by one hydrogen atom.
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 + Br2 → CH3-CHBr-CH2-CH3 + HBr (hv or increased to);
CH3-CHBr-CH2-CH3 + Br2 → CH3-CBr2-CH2-CH3 + HBr (hv or increased to);
Galogenirovannami will continue until they are replaced by hydrogen atoms.
3. nitration of butane:
Cm. nitration of ethane.
4. the oxidation (burning) butane:
With excess oxygen:
2C4H10 + 13O2 → 8CO2 + 10H2O.
If there is insufficient oxygen instead of carbon dioxide (CO2) is a carbon monoxide (co), with still less oxygen is released to the fine carbon soot (in various forms, including in the form of graphene, fullerenes , etc.) or a mixture thereof.
5. sulfochlorinated Bhutan:
C4H10 + SO2 + Cl2 → is C4H9-SO2Cl + … (hv).
6. sulfookislenie Bhutan:
2C4H10 + 2SO2 + O2 → 2C4H9-ЅО2ОН (increased to).
Getting Bhutan. The chemical reaction equation of obtaining butane
Because butane in sufficient quantity contained in natural gas, casinghead gas and is released when cracking of petroleum products, don’t get artificially. It is isolated in the purification and separation of natural gas, associated gas and oil by distillation.
Bhutan in the laboratory is the result of the following chemical reactions:
1. hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, e.g., butene:
CH3-CH2-CH=CH2 + H2 → CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 (kat = Ni, Pt or Pd, increased to).
2. recovery halogenoalkanes:
C4H9I + HI → C4H10 + I2 (increased to);
C4H9Br + H2 → C4H10 + HBr.
3. halogenoalkanes interaction with the metallic alkali metal, e.g., sodium (reaction furca):
2C2H5Br + 2Na → CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 + 2NaBr;
2C2H5Cl + 2Na → CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 + 2NaCl.
The essence of this reaction is that two molecules halogenoalkane contact one, reacting with alkali metal.
4. alkaline melting of salts of monobasic organic acids:
Is C4H9-COOH + NaOH → C4H10 + Na2CO3 (increased to);
Is C4H9-COONa + NaOH → C4H10 + NaHCO3.
The application and use of the Bhutan:
– as a fuel in a mixture with propane in the home for cooking, vehicles, heating devices, etc.;
– n-butane is used as raw material in the chemical and petrochemical industry to produce butylene, 1,3-butadiene, components of gasoline with high octane number for the production of other chemicals;
– in the food industry as a food additive E943a and E943b (isobutane) is used as a propellant;
– isobutane is used as refrigerant in refrigerators, freezers, refrigeration systems and air conditioning systems air. Used alone or in a mixture with propane. In contrast to other refrigerants the mixture and isobutane do not destroy the ozone layer.
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