Basic oxides, list, list, physical and chemical properties

Basic oxides, list, list, physical, and chemical properties.

 

 

Basic oxides – salt metal oxides that are bases. Usually, the metals they show oxidation state +1 or +2.

 

Basic oxides

What are basic oxides? The list of basic oxides

Physical properties of basic oxides

Obtaining basic oxides

Chemical properties of basic oxides

Chemical reactions of basic oxides

 



Basic oxides:

Basic oxides – salt metal oxides that are bases. Usually, the metals they show oxidation state +1 or +2.

In turn, the oxide is called an inorganic chemical compound composed of two chemical elements, one of which is oxygen. The oxygen in the oxides exhibits an oxidation state of -2. All the oxides are divided into salt and neutral.

To salt oxides in addition to the basic oxides also include acidic and amphoteri oxides. Respectively correspond to acidic oxides, acids, amphoteric oxides – amphoteric base.

Basic oxides are the oxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals and oxides of transition metals in lower oxidation States.

 


What are basic oxides? List, examples and a list of main oxides:

The name of the oxide: Chemical formula:
The barium oxide BaO
The potassium oxide K2O
Calcium oxide CaO
Oxide lithium Li2 O
Magnesium oxide MgO
Copper oxide II CuO
Sodium oxide Na2O
Oxide of mercury II HgO

 

Physical properties of basic oxides:

Common physical characteristic for all the major oxides is that they are solid substances. While others: appearance, color, density, melting and boiling point, molar mass, hardness, etc. are different.

The name of the oxide: Chemical formula: Appearance:
The barium oxide BaO colorless crystals
The potassium oxide K2O solid, colorless or pale yellow substance
Calcium oxide CaO a white crystalline substance
Oxide lithium Li2 O colorless crystals
Magnesium oxide MgO solid white substance
Copper oxide II CuO solid black substance
Sodium oxide Na2O colorless crystals
Oxide of mercury II HgO solid red or yellow-orange color

 

Receipt of main oxides:

Basic oxides are the result:

1. oxidation of metals by oxygen (except the noble):

2Ba + O2 → 2ВаО;

2K + O2 → К2О2, К2О2 + 2K → 2К2О;

2ca + O2 → 2СаО (t = 300 oC);

4Li + O2 → 2Li2О;

2Cu + O2 → Cao;

6Na + 2О2 → Na2О2 + 2Na2О, Na2О2 + 2Na → 2Na2О.

2. thermal decomposition of hydroxides:

Ba(OH)2 → BaO + H2O (t = 780-800 oC);

CA(OH)2 → Cao + H2O (t = 520-580 oC);

Cu(OH)2 → CuO + H2O (to);

3. thermal decomposition of salts:

BaCO3 → BaO + CO2 (t = oC 1000-1450);

Са2СО3 → Cao + CO2 (t = 900-1200 oC);

MgCO3 → MgO + CO2 (t > 650 oC);

CuCO3 → CuO + CO2 (to);

2Na2СO3 → Na2O + CO2 (t = 851 oC).

 

Chemical properties of basic oxides. Chemical reactions of basic oxides:

For basic oxides, characterized by the following overall chemical reaction:

1. the interaction with water.

In the reaction with water entering it, the oxides, and oxides only the most active metals, which are located in the main subgroups of the first and second groups of the periodic table of chemical elements of Mendeleev (sodium, potassium, calcium, barium, etc.).

As a result of interaction of basic oxides with water are formed of the base.

BaO + H2O → Ba(OH)2;

K2O + H2O → 2КОН;

CaO + H2O → Ca(Oh)2;

Li2О + H2O → 2LiОН;

MgO + H2O → Mg(Oh)2 (t = 100-125 oC);

Na2O + H2O → 2NaОН.

2. interaction with acidic oxides.

As a result of chemical reactions of basic oxides with acidic oxides formed by Sol.

BaO + CO2 → BaCO3;

BaO + SO3 → BaSO4;

K2O + CO2 → К2СО3;

K2O + SO2 → К2ЅО3;

K2O + ЅО3 → К2ЅО4;

K2O + SiO2 → К2ЅіО3;

CaO + CO2 → CaCO3;

CaO + SO2 → СаЅО3;

CaO + ЅО3 → СаЅО4;

CaO + SiO2 → СаЅіО3 (t = 1100-1200 oC);

Li2О + CO2 → Li2СО3;

Li2О + SO2 → Li2SО3;

Li2О + SiO2 → Li2SiО3 (t = 1200-1300 oC);

MgO + CO2 → MgCO3;

MgO + SO2 → МдЅО3;

MDO + ЅО3 → МдЅО4;

MgO + SiO2 → МдЅіО3 (t = 1100-1200 oC);

Na2O + CO2 → Na2CO3 (t = 450-550°C);

Na2O + SO2 → Na2SО3;

Na2O + ЅО3 → Na2SО4;

Na2O + SiO2 → Na2SiО3 (t o).

3. interaction with acids.

As a result of chemical reactions of basic oxides with acids forming salt and water.

BaO + 2HF → BaF2 + H2O;

BaO + 2HNO3 → 2Ba(NO3)2 + H2O;

3BaO + 2H3PO4 → Ba3(PO4)2 + 3H2O;

K2O + 2HF → 2KF + H2O;

K2O + 2HNO3 → 2KNO3 + H2O;

CaO + 2HF → CaF2 + H2O;

CaO + 2HNO3 → 2ca(NO3)2 + H2O;

Li2O + 2HF → 2LiF + H2O;

Li2O + 2HNO3 → 2LiNO3 + H2O;

MgO + 2HF → MgF2 + H2O;

MgO + 2HNO3 → 2Mg(NO3)2 + H2O;

CuO + 2HF → CuF2 + H2O;

CuO + 2HNO3 → 2Cu(NO3)2 + H2O;

Na2O + 2HF → 2NaF + H2O;

Na2O + 2HNO3 → 2NaNO3 + H2O.

Similar are reactions of basic oxides with other acids.

4. the interaction with amphoteric oxides.

As a result of chemical reactions of basic oxides with amphoteric oxides formed salt.

BaO + ZnO → BaZnO2 (t = 1100 oC);

BaO + SnO → BaSnO2 (t = 1000 oC);

K2O + ZnО → К2ZnО2;

CaO + Al2O3 → Ca(AlО2)2 (t = 1200-1300 °C);

MgO + Al2O3 → MgAl2О4 (t = 1600 °C);

MgO + Fe2O3 → MgFe2О4 (to);

CuO + Fe2O3 → CuFe2О4 (to);

5Na2О + Fe2O3 → 2Na5FeО4 (t = 450-500 °C);

Na2O + Al2O3 → 2NaAlО2 (t = 2000 °C);

Na2O + PbO → 2Na2PbО2 (t o).

5. recovery to simple substances:

BaO + Be → Ba + BeO (t = 270 oC);

3BaO + 2Al → 3Ba + Al2O3 (t = 1200 oC);

2Al + 4BaO → Ba(AlO2)2 + 3Ba (t = 1100-1200 oC);

2Al + 4BaO → BaAl2O4 + 3Ba (t = 1100-1200 oC);

3BaO + Si → 2Ba + BaSiO3 (t = 1200 oC);

4СаО + 2Al → 2Ca + Ca(AlO2)2 (t = 1200 oC);

Li2O + Mg → 2Li + MgO (t > 800 oC);

3Li2O + 2Al → 6Li + Al2O3 (t > 1000 oC);

2Li2O + Si → 4Li + SiO2 (t = 1000 oC);

2МдО + Si → 2Mg + SiO2;

MDO + 2K → Mg + K2O;

MLA + CA → Mg + Cao (t = 1300 oC);

3МдО + 2Al → 3Mg + Al2О3;

CuO + H2 → Cu + H2O (t = 300 oC);

CuO + C → Cu + CO (t = 1200 oC);

3СиО + 2Al → 3Cu + Al2О3 (t = 1000-1100 oC).

6. interaction with hydrogen halides (bromovalerate, yodovidona, etc.).

As a result of chemical reactions of basic oxides with the hydrogen halides formed are salt and water.

BaO + 2HBr → BaBr2 + H2O;

BaO + 2HI → BaI2 + H2O;

K2O + 2HBr → 2KBr + H2O;

K2O + 2HI → LENGTH 2KI + H2O;

CaO + 2HBr → СаВг2 + H2O;

CaO + 2HI → СаІ2 + H2O;

Li2O + 2HBr → 2LiBr + H2O.

Li2O + 2HI → 2LiI + H2O;

MgO + 2HBr → MgBr2 + H2O;

MgO + 2HI → MgI2 + H2O;

CuO + 2HBr → CuBr2 + H2O;

CuO + 2HI → CuI2 + H2O;

Na2O + 2HBr → 2NaBr + H2O;

Na2O + 2HI → 2NaI + H2O.

 

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