Autoclave for carrying out chemical reactions in supercritical fluid condition.
Russian scientists have developed an autoclave for carrying out chemical reactions in the environment of alcohols and other substances in a supercritical fluid state, i.e. in such a state of matter in which we lost the distinction between its liquid and gas phases.
Autoclave is an apparatus for various processes, including chemicalflowing when heated and under pressure above atmospheric.
The autoclave used for chemical reactions, sometimes it has another name – chemical reactor. In addition to applications in chemistry the unit used in medicine, food industry, metallurgy, industry of construction materials.
In chemistry, the autoclave is used to carry out chemical reactions that under normal conditions (temperature, pressure) do not occur.
Russian scientists have developed a high-pressure autoclave for carrying out chemical reactions in the environment of alcohols and other substances in a supercritical fluid state, i.e. in such a state of matter in which we lost the distinction between its liquid and gas phases.
Substances in the supercritical state are called supercritical fluids. They have other properties than ordinary gas or liquid state.
Thus, supercritical fluids have high density close to liquids, and low viscosity as gases. The diffusion coefficient in this case is intermediate between the liquid and gas value.
Experimentally for many substances the critical temperature, critical pressure and critical density.
One of the most important properties of supercritical state of matter – is the ability to dissolve substances. Changing the temperature or pressure of the fluid can change its properties in a wide range. Solvent capacity of the fluid increases with density (at constant temperature). Since the density increases with increasing pressure, changing the pressure can affect the solvency of the fluid (at constant temperature). In the case of temperature dependence of fluid properties is slightly more complicated.
The autoclave supports chemical reactions in aggressive environments at temperatures up to 500 degrees Celsius and pressures up to 500 atmospheres. The autoclave is made of heat resistant alloy Incoloy A-286, which consists of iron, Nickel, chromium, with additions of molybdenum, titanium, aluminum, vanadium and boron. It is designed for chemical testing, as well as obtaining new substances and materials.
– supports chemical reactions in aggressive environments
– ensures carrying out chemical reactions at high temperature and pressure.