Allotrope carbon due to the nature of carbon-carbon bonds between carbon atoms, which can take different forms: sp3, sp2, sp.
Allotropy is a phenomenon of existence of two or more simple substances of the same chemical element but different in their structure and thus properties. All forms and modifications of such substances are called allotropes.
Allotropic modifications of carbon the most common chemical elements and their properties are the most drastically different from each other: from soft to hard, opaque to transparent, abrasive to lubrication, inexpensive to expensive.
The basis of the existence of allotropic forms is the nature of the carbon-carbon bonds between carbon atoms, which can take different forms: sp3, sp2, sp. Accordingly, they lead to the formation of single, double or triple bonds. With the increasing multiplicity increasing the energy of carbon-carbon bonds.
|Chemical bond||C-C||C=C||C ≡C|
|The hybrid state of carbon atom||sp3||sp2||sp|
In the end, the carbon forms a very large number allotropical modifications of the linear or cyclic structure.
The nature of the bonds between the atoms allotropic modification of carbon can be divided:
– sp3 forms diamond (cubic), lonsdaleite (hexagonal diamond),
– sp2 forms graphite, graphene (graphene), fullerene (fullerene), carbon nanotube (carbon nanotube, CNT), carbon nanofibers, astral (astralen), a glassy carbon, a colossal carbon tube, carbon nanocones (carbon nanocone CNC), carbon nanobrush (carbon nanorod, CNR), carbon true for analysis of nanorods (carbon nanoplate), carbon manolete (carbon nanoribbon), carbon narukvica (carbon nanoonion CNO), carbon nanowires (carbon nanowire, CNW),
– sp shape – carbine (a carbine and b-carbyne),
– sp3/sp2 forms amorphous carbon, carbon nanopack (carbon nanobuds), carbon nanopen,
other form: C1, C2 (diapered), C3, C8, M-carbon.
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